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The Open Group Madrid 2015 – Day Two Highlights

By The Open Group

On Tuesday, April 21, Allen Brown, President & CEO of The Open Group, began the plenary presenting highlights of the work going on in The Open Group Forums. The Open Group is approaching 500 memberships in 40 countries.

Big Data & Open Platform 3.0™ – a Big Deal for Open Standards

Ron Tolido, Senior Vice President of Capgemini’s group CTO network and Open Group Board Member, discussed the digital platform as the “fuel” of enterprise transformation today, citing a study published in the book “Leading Digital.” The DNA of companies that successfully achieve transform has the following factors:

  • There is no escaping from mastering the digital technology – this is an essential part of leading transformation. CEO leadership is a success factor.
  • You need a sustainable technology platform embraced by both the business and technical functions

Mastering digital transformation shows a payoff in financial results, both from the standpoint of efficient revenue generation and maintaining and growing market share. The building blocks of digital capability are:

  • Customer Experience
  • Operations
  • New business models

Security technology must move from being a constraint or “passion killer” to being a driver for digital transformation. Data handling must change it’s model – the old structured and siloed approach to managing data no longer works, resulting in business units bypassing or ignoring the “single souce” data repository. He recommended the “Business Data Lake” approach as a approach to overcoming this, and suggested it should be considered as an open standard as part of the work of the Open Platform 3.0 Forum.

In the Q&A session, Ron suggested establishing hands-on labs to help people embrace digital transformation, and presented the analogy of DatOps as an analogy to DevOps for business data.

Challengers in the Digital Era

Mariano Arnaiz, Chief Information Officer in the CESCE Group, presented the experiences of CESCE in facing challenges of:

  • Changing regulation
  • Changing consumer expectations
  • Changing technology
  • Changing competition and market entrants based on new technology

The digital era represents a new language for many businesses, which CESCE faced during the financial crisis of 2008. They chose the “path less traveled” of becoming a data-driven company, using data and analytics to improve business insight, predict behavior and act on it. CESCE receives over 8000 risk analysis requests per day; using analytics, over 85% are answered in real time, when it used to take more than 20 days. Using analytics has given them unique competitive products such as variable pricing and targeted credit risk coverage while reducing loss ratio.

To drive transformation, the CIO must move beyond IT service supporting the business to helping drive business process improvement. Aligning IT to business is no longer enough for EA – EA must also help align business to transformational technology.

In the Q&A, Mariano said that the approach of using analytics and simulation for financial risk modeling could be applied to some cybersecurity risk analysis cases.

Architecting the Internet of Things

Kary Främling,  CEO of the Finnish company ControlThings and Professor of Practice in Building Information Modeling (BIM) at Aalto University, Finland, gave a history of the Internet of Things (IoT), the standards landscape, issues on security in IoT, and real-world examples.

IoT today is characterized by an increasing number of sensors and devices each pushing large amounts of data to their own silos, with communication limited to their own network. Gaining benefit from IoT requires standards to take a systems view of IoT providing horizontal integration among IoT devices and sensors with data collected as and when needed, and two-way data flows between trusted entities within a vision of Closed-Loop Lifecycle Management. These standards are being developed in The Open Group Open Platform 3.0 Forum’s IoT work stream; published standards such as Open Messaging interface (O-MI) and Open Data Format (O-DF) that allow discovery and interoperability of sensors using open protocols, similar to the way http and html enable interoperability on the Web.

Kary addressed the issues of security and privacy in IoT, noting this is an opportunity for The Open Group to use our EA and Security work to to assess these issues at the scale IoT will bring.By The Open Group

Kary Främling

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Filed under big data, Boundaryless Information Flow™, Cybersecurity, Enterprise Architecture, Internet of Things

Enabling the Boundaryless Organization the Goal of The Open Group Madrid Summit 2015

The Open Group, the global vendor-neutral IT consortium, is hosting its latest event in Madrid April 20 – 23 2015. The event is set to build on the success of previous events and focus on the challenge of building a Boundaryless Organization in the face of a range of new IT trends. As organizations look to take advantage of trends such as the Internet of Things and Open Platform 3.0™, the Madrid event will be an opportunity for peers to present and discuss and how the Boundaryless Organization can be achieved and what methods are best to do so.

Objectives of this year’s conference include:

  • Understanding what role Enterprise Architecture as currently practiced plays in Enterprise Transformation, especially transformations driven by merging and disruptive technologies.
  • Showing the need for Boundaryless Information Flow™, which would result in more interoperable, real-time business processes that span throughout all business ecosystems.
  • Understanding how to develop better interoperability and communication across organizational boundaries and pursue global standards for Enterprise Architecture that are highly relevant to all industries.
  • Showing how organizations can achieve their business objectives by adopting new technologies and processes as part of the Enterprise Transformation management principles – making the whole process more a matter of design than of chance.
  • Examining how the growth of “The Internet of Things” with online currencies and mobile enabled transactions has changed the face of financial services, and poses new threats and opportunities.

Key plenary and track speakers at the event include:

  • Allen Brown, President & CEO, The Open Group
  • Ron Tolido, SVP, Group CTO Office, , Global Insights and Data practice, Capgemini
  • Mariano Arnaiz, CIO, Grupo CESCE
  • Domingo Molina, Director of Information Technology and Communication Management, CNIS

Full details on the event agenda can be found here.

Registration for The Open Group Madrid is open now and available to members and non-members.  Please visit here.

Join the conversation! @theopengroup #ogMAD

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Filed under big data, Boundaryless Information Flow™, Enterprise Architecture, Internet of Things, Interoperability, Open Platform 3.0, OTTF, Professional Development, RISK Management, Standards, Strategy, TOGAF

The Open Group San Diego Panel Explores Synergy Among Major Frameworks in Enterprise Architecture

Following is a transcript of part of the proceedings from The Open Group San Diego event in February – a panel discussion on The Synergy of Enterprise Architecture frameworks.

The following panel, which examines the synergy among the major Enterprise Architecture frameworks, consists of moderator Allen Brown, President and Chief Executive Officer, The Open Group; Iver Bank, an Enterprise Architect at Cambia Health Solutions; Dr. Beryl Bellman, Academic Director, FEAC Institute; John Zachman, Chairman and CEO of Zachman International, and originator of the Zachman Framework; and Chris Forde, General Manager, Asia and Pacific Region and Vice President, Enterprise Architecture, The Open Group.

Here are some excerpts:

By The Open GroupIver Band: As an Enterprise Architect at Cambia Health Solutions, I have been working with the ArchiMate® Language for over four years now, both working with and on it in the ArchiMate® Forum. As soon as I discovered it in late 2010, I could immediately see, as an Enterprise Architect, how it filled an important gap.

It’s very interesting to see the perspective of John Zachman. I will briefly present how the ArchiMate Language allows you to fully support enterprise architecture using The Zachman Framework. So I am going to very briefly talk about enterprise architecture with the ArchiMate Language and The Zachman Framework.

What is the ArchiMate Language? Well, it’s a language we use for building understanding across disciplines in an organization and communicating and managing change.  It’s a graphical notation with formal semantics. It’s a language.

It’s a framework that describes and relates the business, application, and technology layers of an enterprise, and it has extensions for modelling motivation, which includes business strategy, external factors affecting the organization, requirements for putting them altogether and for showing them from different stakeholder perspectives.

You can show conflicting stakeholder perspectives, and even politics. I’ve used it to model organizational politics that were preventing a project from going forward.

It has a rich set of techniques in its viewpoint mechanism for visualizing and analyzing what’s going on in your enterprise. Those viewpoints are tailored to different stakeholders.  And, of course, ArchiMate®, like TOGAF®, is an open standard managed by The Open Group.

Taste of Archimate

This is just a taste of ArchiMate for people who haven’t seen it before. This is actually excerpted from the presentation my colleague Chris McCurdy and I are doing at this conference on Guiding Agile Solution Delivery with the ArchiMate Language.

What this shows is the Business and Application Layers of ArchiMate. It shows a business process at the top. Each process is represented by a symbol. It shows a data model of business objects, then, at the next layer, in yellow.

Below that, it shows a data model actually realized by the application, the actual data that’s being processed.

Below that, it shows an application collaboration, a set of applications working together, that reads and writes that data and realizes the business data model that our business processes use.

All in all, it presents a vision of an integrated project management toolset for a particular SDLC that uses the phases that you see across the top.

We are going to dissect this model, how you would build it, and how you would develop it in an agile environment in our presentation tomorrow.

I have done some analysis of The Zachman Framework, comparing it to the ArchiMate Language. What’s really clear is that ArchiMate supports enterprise architecture with The Zachman Framework. You see a rendering of The Zachman Framework and then you see a rendering of the components of the ArchiMate Language. You see the Business Layer, the Application Layer, the Technology Layer, its ability to express information, behavior, and structure, and then the Motivation and Implementation and Migration extensions.

So how does it support it? Well, there are two key things here. The first is that ArchiMate models answer the questions that are posed by The Zachman Framework columns.

For what: for Inventory. We are basically talking about what is in the organization. There are Business and Data Objects, Products, Contracts, Value, and Meaning.

For how: for process. We can model Business Processes and Functions. We can model Flow and Triggering Relationships between them.

Where: for the Distribution of our assets. We can model Locations, we can model Devices, and we can model Networks, depending on how you define Location within a network or within a geography.

For who: We can model Responsibility, with Business Actors, Collaborations, and Roles.

When: for Timing. We have Business Events, Plateaus of System Evolution, relatively stable systems states, and we have Triggering Relationships.

Why: We have a rich Motivation extension, Stakeholders, Drivers, Assessments, Principles, Goals, Requirements, etc., and we show how those different components influence and realize each other.

Zachman perspectives

Finally, ArchiMate models express The Zachman Row Perspectives. For the contextual or boundary perspective, where Scope Lists are required, we can make catalogs of ArchiMate Concepts. ArchiMate has broad tool support, and in a repository-based tool, while ArchiMate is a graphical language, you can very easily take list of concepts, as I do regularly, and put them in catalog or metrics form. So it’s easy to come up with those Scope Lists.

Secondly, for the Conceptual area, the Business Model, we have a rich set of Business Layer Viewpoints. Like the top of the — that focus on the top of the diagram that I showed you; Business Processes, Actors, Collaborations, Interfaces, Business Services that are brought to market.

Then at the Logical Layer we have System. We have a rich set of Application Layer Viewpoints and Viewpoints that show how Applications use Infrastructure.

For Physical, we have an Infrastructure Layer, which can be used to model any type of Infrastructure: Hosting, Network, Storage, Virtualization, Distribution, and Failover. All those types of things can be modeled.

And for Configuration and Instantiation, the Application and Technology Layer Viewpoints are available, particularly more detailed ones, but are also important is the Mappings to standard design languages such as BPMN, UML and ERD. Those are straightforward for experienced modelers. We also have a white paper on using the ArchiMate language with UML. Thank you.

By The Open GroupDr. Beryl Bellman: I have been doing enterprise architecture for quite a long time, for what you call pre-enterprise architecture work, probably about 30 years, and I first met John Zachman well over 20 years ago.

In addition to being an enterprise architect I am also a University Professor at California State University, Los Angeles. My focus there is on Organizational Communications. While being a professor, I always have been involved in doing contract consulting for companies like Digital Equipment Corporation, ASK, AT&T, NCR, then Ptech.

About 15 years ago, a colleague of mine and I founded the FEAC Institute. The initial name for that was the Federal Enterprise Architecture Certification Institute, and then we changed it to Federated. It actually goes by both names.

The business driver of that was the Clinger–Cohen Bill in 1996 when it was mandated by government that all federal agencies must have an enterprise architecture.

And then around 2000, they began to enforce that regulation. My business partner at that time, Felix Rausch, and I felt that we need some certification in how to go about doing and meeting those requirements, both for the federal agencies and the Department of Defense. And so that’s when we created the FEAC Institute.

Beginning of FEAC

In our first course, we had the Executive Office of the President, US Department of Fed, which I believe was the first Department of the Federal Government that was hit by OMB which held up their budget for not having an enterprise architecture on file. So they were pretty desperate, and that began the first of the beginning of the FEAC.

Since that time, a lot of people have come in from the commercial world and from international areas. And the idea of FEAC was that you start off with learning how to do enterprise architecture. In a lot of programs, including TOGAF, you sort of have to already know a little bit about enterprise architecture, the hermeneutical circle. You have to know what it is to know.

In FEAC we had a position that you want to provide training and educating in how to do enterprise architecture that will get you from a beginning state to be able to take full responsibility for work doing enterprise architecture in a matter of three months. It’s associated with the California State University System, and you can get, if you so desire, 12 graduate academic units in Engineering Management that can be applied toward a degree or you can get continuing education units.

So that’s how we began that. Then, a couple of years ago, my business partner decided he wanted to retire, and fortunately there was this guy named John Zachman, who will never retire. He’s a lot younger than all of us in this room, right? So he purchased the FEAC Institute.

I still maintain a relationship with it as Academic Director, in which primarily my responsibilities are as a liaison to the universities. My colleague, Cort Coghill, is sort of the Academic Coordinator of the FEAC Institute.

FEAC is an organization that also incorporates a lot of the training and education programs of Zachman International, which includes managing the FEAC TOGAF courses, as well as the Zachman certified courses, which we will tell you more about.

‘m just a little bit surprised by this idea, the panel, the way we are constructed here, because I didn’t have a presentation. I’m doing it off the top, as you can see. I was told we are supposed to have a panel discussion about the synergies of enterprise architecture. So I prepared in my mind the synergies between the different enterprise architectures that are out there.

For that, I just wanted to make a strong point. I wanted to talk about synergy like a bifurcation between on the one hand, “TOGAF and Zachman” as being standing on one side, whereas the statement has been made earlier this morning and throughout the meeting is “TOGAF and.”

Likewise, we have Zachman, and it’s not “Zachman or, but it’s ‘Zachman and.” Zachman provides that ontology, as John talks about it in his periodic table of basic elements of primitives through which we can constitute any enterprise architecture. To attempt to build an architecture out of composites and then venting composites and just modeling  you’re just getting a snapshot in time and you’re really not having an enterprise architecture that is able to adapt and change. You might be able to have a picture of it, but that’s all you really have.

That’s the power of The Zachman Framework. Hopefully, most of you will attend our demonstration this afternoon and a workshop where we are actually going to have people work with building primitives and looking at the relationship of primitives, the composites with a case study.

Getting lost

On the other side of that, Schekkerman wrote something about the forest of architectural frameworks and getting lost in that. There are a lot of enterprise architectural frameworks out there.

I’m not counting TOGAF, because TOGAF has its own architectural content metamodel, with its own artifacts, but those does not require one to use the artifacts in the architectural content metamodel. They suggest that you can use DoDAF. You can use MODAF. You can use commercial ones like NCR’s GITP. You can use any one.

Those are basically the competing models. Some of them are commercial-based, where organizations have their own proprietary stamps and the names of the artifacts, and the wrong names for it, and others want to give it its own take.

I’m more familiar nowadays with the governmental sectors. For example, FEAF, Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework Version 2. Are you familiar with that? Just go on the Internet, type in FEAF v2. Since Scott Bernard has been the head, he is the Chief Architect for the US Government at the OMB, he has developed a model of enterprise architecture, what he calls the Architecture Cube Model, which is an iteration off of John’s, but he is pursuing a cube form rather than a triangle form.

Also, for him the FEAF-II, as enterprise architecture, fits into his FEAF-II, because at the top level he has the strategic plans of an organization.

It goes down to different layers, but then, at one point, it drops off and becomes not only a solution, but it gets into the manufacturing of the solution. He has these whole series of artifacts that pertain to these different layers, but at the lower levels, you have a computer wiring closet diagram model, which is a little bit more detailed than what we would consider to be at a level of enterprise architecture.

Then you have the MODAF, the DoDAF, and all of these other ones, where a lot of those compete with each other more on the basis of political choices.

With the MODAF, the British obviously don’t want to use DoDAF, they have their own, but they are very similar to each other. One view, the acquisition view, differs from the project view, but they do the same things. You can define them in terms of each other.

Then there is the Canadian, NAF, and all that, and they are very similar. Now, we’re trying to develop the unified MODAF, DoDAF, and NAF architecture, UPDM, which is still in its planning stages. So we are moving toward a more integrated system.

BrownAllen Brown: Let’s move on to some of the questions that folks are interested in. Moving away from what the frameworks are, there is a question here. How does enterprise architecture take advantage of the impact of new emerging technologies like social, mobile, analytics, cloud, and so on?

Bidirectional change

John A Zachman: The change can take place in the enterprise either from the top, where we change the context of the enterprise, or from the bottom, where we change the technologies.

So technology is expressed in the context of the enterprise, what I would call Rule 4, and that’s the physical domain. And it’s the same way in any other — the building architecture, the airplane architecture, or anything. You can implement the logic, the as-designed logic, in different technologies.

Whatever the technology is, I made an observation that you want to engineer for flexibility. You separate the independent variables. So you separate the logic at Rule 3 from the physics of Rule 4, and then you can change Rule 4 without changing Rule 3. Basically that’s the idea, so you can accommodate whatever the emerging technologies are.

Bellman: I would just continue with that. I agree with John. Thinking about the synergy between the different architectures, basically every enterprise architecture contains, or should contain, considerations of those primitives. Then, it’s a matter of which a customer wants, which a customer feels comfortable with? Basically as long as you have those primitives defined, then you essentially can use any architecture. That constitute the synergy between the architectures.

Band: I agree with what’s been said. It’s also true that I think that one of the jobs of an enterprise architect is to establish a view of the organization that can be used to promote understanding and communicate and manage change. With cloud-based systems, they are generally based on metadata, and the major platforms, like Salesforce.com as an example. They publish their data models and their APIs.

So I think that there’s going to be a new generation of systems that provide a continuously synchronized, real-time view of what’s going on in the enterprise. So the architectural model will model this in the future, where things need to go, and they will do analyses, but we will be using cloud, big data, and even sensor technologies to understand the state of the enterprise.

Bellman: In the DoDaF 2.0, when that initially came out, I think it was six years ago or so, they have services architecture, a services view, and a systems view. And one of the points they make within the context, not as a footnote, is that they expect the systems view to sort of disappear and there will be a cloud view that will take its place. So I think you are right on that.

Chris Forde: The way I interpreted the question was, how does EA or architecture approach the things help you manage disruptive things? And if you accept the idea that enterprise architecture actually is a management discipline, it’s going to help you ask the right questions to understand what you are dealing with, where it should be positioned, what the risks and value proposition is around those particular things, whether that’s the Internet of Things, cloud computing, or all of these types of activities.

So going back to the core of what Terry’s presentation was about is a decision making framework with informed questions to help you understand what you should be doing to either mitigate the risk, take advantage of the innovation, and deploy the particular thing in a way that’s useful to your business. That’s the way I read the question.

Impact of sensors

Band: Just to reinforce what Chris says, as an enterprise architect in healthcare, one of the things that I am looking at very closely is the evaluation of the impact of health sensor technology. Gartner Group says that by 2020, the average lifespan in a developed country will be increased by six months due to mobile health monitoring.

And so there are vast changes in the whole healthcare delivery system, of which my company is at the center as a major healthcare payer and investor in all sorts of healthcare companies. I use enterprise architecture techniques to begin to understand the impact of that and show the opportunities to our health insurance business.

Brown: If you think about social and mobile and you look at the entire enterprise architecture, now you are starting to expand that beyond the limits of the organization, aren’t you? You’re starting to look at, not just the organization and the ecosystem, your business partners, but you are also looking at the impact of bringing mobile devices into the organization, of managers doing things on their own with cloud that wasn’t part of the architecture. You have got the relationship with consumers out there that are using social and mobile. How do you capture all of that in enterprise architecture?

Forde: Allen, if I had the answer to that question I would form my own business and I would go sell it.

Back in the day, when I was working in large organizations, we were talking about the extended enterprise, that kind of ecosystem view of things. And at that time the issue was more problematic. We knew we were in an extended ecosystem, but we didn’t really have the technologies that effectively supported it.

The types of technologies that are available today, the ones that The Open Group has white papers about — cloud computing, the Internet of Things, this sort of stuff — architectures can help you classify those things. And the technologies that are being deployed can help you track them, and they can help you track them not as documents of the instance, but of the thing in real time that is talking to you about what its state is, and what its future state will be, and then you have to manage that information in vast quantities.

So an architecture can help you within your enterprise understand those things and it can help you connect to other enterprises or other information sources to allow you to make sense of all those things. But again, it’s a question of scoping, filtering, making sense, and abstracting — that key phrase that John pointed out earlier, of abstracting this stuff up to a level that is comprehensible and not overwhelming.

Brown: So Iver, at Cambia Health, you must have this kind of problem now, mustn’t you?

Provide value

Band: That’s exactly what I am doing. I am figuring out what will be the impact of certain technologies and how our businesses can use them to differentiate and provide value.

In fact, I was just on a call this morning with JeffSTAT, because the whole ecosystem is changing, and we know that healthcare is really changing. The current model is not financially sustainable, and there is also tremendous amount of waste in our healthcare system today. The executives of our company say that about a third of the $2.7 trillion and rising spent on healthcare in the US doesn’t do anyone any good.

There’s a tremendous amount of IT investment in that, and that requires architecture to tie it altogether. It has to do with all the things ranging from the logic with which we edit claims, to the follow-up we provide people with particularly dangerous and consequently expensive diseases. So there is just a tremendous amount going through an enterprise architecture. It’s necessary to have a coherent narrative of what the organization needs to do.

Bellman: One thing we all need to keep in mind is even more dynamic than that, if you believe even a little bit of Kurzweil’s possibilities is that — are people familiar with Ray Kurzweil’s ‘The Singularity Is Near’ — 2037 will be around the singularly between computers and human beings.

So I think that the wrap where he argues that the amount of change is not linear but exponential, and so in a sense you will never catch up, but you need an architecture to manage that.

By The Open GroupZachman: The way we deal with complexity is through classification. I suggest that there is more than one way to classify things. One is one-dimensional classification, taxonomy, or hierarchy, in effect, decompositions, one-dimensional classification, and that’s really helpful for manufacturing. From an engineering standpoint of a two-dimensional classification, where we have classified things so that they are normalized, one effect in one place.

Then if you have the problems identified, you can postulate several technology changes or several changes and simulate the various implications of it.

The whole reason why I do architecture has to do with change. You deal with extreme complexity and then you have to accommodate extreme change. There is no other way to deal with it. Humanity, for thousands of years, has not been able to figure out a better way to deal with complexity and change other than architecture.

Forde: Maybe we shouldn’t apply architecture to some things.

For example, maybe the technologies or the opportunity is so new, we need to have the decision-making framework that says, you know what, let’s not try and figure out all this, just to self-control their stuff in advance, okay? Let’s let it run and see what happens, and then when it’s at the appropriate point for architecture, let’s apply it, this is a more organic view of the way nature and life works than the enterprise view of it.

So what I am saying is that architecture is not irrelevant in that context. It’s actually there is a part of the decision-making framework to not architect something at this point in time because it’s inappropriate to do so.

Funding and budgeting

Band: Yeah, I agree that wholeheartedly. If it can’t be health solutions, we are a completely agile shop. All the technology development is on the same sprint cycle, and we have three-week sprints, but we also have certain things that are still annual and wonderful like funding and budgeting.

We live in a tension. People say, well, what are you going to do, what budget do you need, but at the same time, I haven’t figured everything out. So I am constantly living in that gap of what do I need to meet a certain milestone to get my project funded, and what do I need to do to go forward? Obviously, in a fully agile organization, all those things would be fluid. But then there’s financial reporting, and we would also have to be fluid too. So there are barriers to that.

For instance, the Scaled Agile Framework, which I think is a fascinating thing, has a very clear place for enterprise architecture. As Chris said, you don’t want to do too much of it in advance.  I am constantly getting the gap between how can I visualize what’s going to happen a year out and how can I give the development teams what they need for the sprint. So I am always living in that paradox.

Bellman: The Gartner Group, not too long ago, came up with the concept of emerging enterprise architecture and what we are dealing with. Enterprises don’t exist like buildings. A building is an object, but an enterprise is a group of human beings communicating with one another.

As a very famous organizational psychologist Karl Weick once pointed out, “The effective organization is garrulous, clumsy, superstitious, hypocritical, mostrous, octopoid, wandering, and grouchy.” Why? Because an organization is continually adapting, continually changing, and continually adapting to the changing business and technological landscape.

To expect anything other than that is not having a realistic view of the enterprise. It is emerging and it is a continually emerging phenomena. So in a sense, having an architecture concept I would not contest, but architecting is always worthwhile. It’s like it’s an organic phenomena, and that in order to deal with that what we can also understand and have an architecture for organic phenomena that change and rapidly adapt.

Brown: Chris, where you were going follows the lines of what great companies do, right?

There is a great book published about 30 years ago called ‘In Search of Excellence.’ If you haven’t read it, I suggest that people do. Written by Peters and Waterman, and Tom Peters has tried for ever since to try and recreate something with that magic, but one of the lessons learned was what great companies do, is something that goes simultaneous loose-tight properties. So you let somethings be very tightly controlled, and other things as are suggesting, let them flourish and see where they go before I actually box them in. So that’s a good thought.

So what do we think, as a panel, about evolving TOGAF to become an engineering methodology as well as a manufacturing methodology?

Zachman: I really think it’s a good idea.

Brown: Chris, do you have any thoughts on that?

Interesting proposal

Forde: I think it’s an interesting proposal and I think we need to look at it fairly seriously. The Open Group approach to things is, don’t lock people into a specific way of thinking, but we also advocate disciplined approach to doing things. So I would susspect that we are going to be exploring John’s proposal pretty seriously.

Brown: You mentioned in your talk that decision-making process is a precondition, the decision-making process to govern IT investments, and the question that comes in is how about other types of investments including facilities, inventory and acquisitions?

By The Open GroupForde: The wording of the presentation was very specific. Most organizations have a process or decision-making framework on an annual basis or quarterly whatever the cycles are for allocation of funding to do X, Y or Z. So the implication wasn’t that IT was the only space that it would be applied.

However, the question is how effective is that decision-making framework? In many organizations, or in a lot of organizations, the IT function is essentially an enterprise-wide activity that’s supporting the financial activities, the plant activities, these sorts of things. So you have the P&Ls from those things flowing in some way into the funding that comes to the IT organization.

The question is, when there are multiple complexities in an organization, multiple departments with independent P&Ls, they are funding IT activities in a way that may not be optimized, may or may not be optimized. For the architects, in my view, one of the avenues for success is in inserting yourself into that planning cycle and influencing,  because normally the architecture team does not have direct control over the spend, but influencing how that spend goes.

Over time gradually improving the enterprise’s ability to optimize and make effective the funding it applies for IT to support the rest of the business.

Zachman: Yeah, I was just wondering, you’ve got to make observation.

Band: I agree, I think that the battle to control shadow IT has been permanently lost. We are in a technology obsessed society. Every department wants to control some technology and even develop it to their needs. There are some controls that you do have, and we do have some, but we have core health insurance businesses that are nearly a 100 years old.

Cambia is constantly investing and acquiring new companies that are transforming healthcare. Cambia has over a 100 million customers all across the country even though our original business was a set of regional health plans.

Build relationships

You can’t possibly rationalize all of everything I want you to pay for on that thing. It is incumbent upon the architects, especially the senior ones, to build relationships with the people in these organizations and make sure everything is synergetic.

Many years ago, there was a senior architect. I asked him what he did, and he said, “Well, I’m just the glue. I go to a lot of meetings.” There are deliverables and deadlines too, but there is a part of consistently building the relationships and noticing things, so that when there is time to make a decision or someone needs something, it gets done right.

Zachman: I was in London when Bank of America got bought by NationsBank, and it was touted as the biggest banking merger in the history of the banking industry.

Actually it wasn’t a merger, it was an acquisition NationsBank acquired Bank of America and then changed the name to Bank of America. There was a London paper that was  observing that the headline you always see is, “The biggest merger in the history of the industry.” The headline you never see is, “This merger didn’t work.”

The cost of integrating the two enterprises exceeded the value of the acquisition. Therefore, we’re going to have to break this thing up in pieces and sell off the pieces as surreptitiously as possible, so nobody will notice that we buried any accounting notes someplace or other. You never see that article. You’ll only see the one about the biggest merger.

If I was the CEO and my strategy was to grow by acquisition, I would get really interested in enterprise architecture. Because you have to be able to anticipate the integration of the cost, if you want to merge two enterprises. In fact, you’re changing the scope of the enterprise. I have talked a little bit about the role on models, but you are changing the scope. As soon as you change a scope, you’re now going to be faced with an integration issue.

Therefore you have to make a choice, scrap and rework. There is no way, after the fact, to integrate parts that don’t fit together. So you’re gong to be faced a decision whether you want to scrap and rework or not. I would get really interested in enterprise architecture, because that’s what you really want to know before you make the expenditure. You acquire and obviously you’ve already blown out all the money. So now you’ve got a problem.

Once again, if I was the CEO and I want to grow by acquisition or merger acquisition, I would get really interested in enterprise architecture.

Cultural issues

Beryl Bellman: One of the big problems we are addressing here is also the cultural and political problems of organizations or enterprises. You could have the best design type of system, and if people and politics don’t agree, there are going to be these kind of conflicts.

I was involved in my favorite projects at consulting. I was involved in consulting with NCR, who was dealing with Hyundai and Samsung and trying to get them together at a conjoint project. They kept fighting with each other in terms of knowledge management, technology transfer, and knowledge transfer. My role of it was to do an architecture of that whole process.

It was called RIAC Research Institute in Computer Technology. On one side of the table, you had Hyundai and Samsung. On the other side of the table, you had NCR. They were throwing PowerPoint slides back and forth at each other. I brought up that the software we used at that time was METIS, and METIS modeled all the processes, everything that was involved.

Samsung said you just hit it with a 2×4. I used to be demonstrating it, rather than tossing out slides, here are the relationships, and be able to show that it really works. To me that was a real demonstration that I can even overcome some of the politics and cultural differences within enterprises.

Brown: I want to give one more question. I think this is more of a concern that we have raised in some people’s minds today, which is, we are talking about all these different frameworks and ontologies, and so there is a first question.

The second one is probably the key one that we are looking at, but it asks what does each of the frameworks lack, what are the key elements that are missing, because that leads on to the second question that says, isn’t needing to understand old enterprise architecture frameworks is not a complex exercise for a practitioner?

Band: My job is not about understanding frameworks. I have been doing enterprises solution architecture in HP at a standard and diversified financial services company and now at health insurance and health solutions company out for quite a while, and it’s really about communicating and understanding in a way that’s useful to your stakeholders.

The frameworks about creating shared understanding of what we have and where are we going to go, and the frameworks are just a set of tools that you have in your toolbox that most people don’t understand.

So the idea is not to understand everything but to get a set of tools, just like a mechanic would, that you carry around that you use all the time. For instance, there are certain types of ArchiMate views that I use when I am in a group. I will draw an ArchiMate business process view with application service use of the same. What are the business processes you need to be and what are the exposed application behaviors that they need to consume?

I had that discussion with people on the business who are in IT, and we drove those diagrams. That’s a useful tool, it works for me, it works for the people around me, it works in my culture, but there is no understanding over frameworks unless that’s your field of study. They are all missing the exact thing you need for a particular interaction, but most likely there is something in there that you can base the next critical interaction on.

Six questions

Zachman: I spent most of my life thinking about my frameworks. There are six questions you have to answer to have a complete description of whatever it is, what I will describe, what, how, where, who, and why. So that’s complete.

The philosophers have established six transformations interestingly enough, the transfer of idea into an instantiation, so that’s a complete set, and I did not invent either one of these, so the six interrogatives. They have the six stages of transformation and that framework has to, by definition, accommodate any factor that’s relevant to the existence of the object of the enterprise.  Therefore any fact has to be classifiable in that structure.

My framework is complete in that regard. For many years, I would have been reluctant to make a categorical statement, but we exercised this, and there is no anomaly. I can’t find an anomaly. Therefore I have a high level of confidence that you can classify any fact in that context.

There is one periodic table. There are n different compound manufacturing processes. You can manufacture anything out of the periodic table. That metaphor is really helpful. There’s one enterprise architecture framework ontology. I happened to stumble across, by accident, the ontology for classifying all of the facts relevant to an enterprise.

I wish I could tell you that I was so smart and understood all of these things at the beginning, but I knew nothing about this, I just happened to stumble across it. The framework fell on my desk one day and I saw the pattern. All I did was I put enterprise names on the same pattern for descriptive representation of anything. You’ve heard me tell quite a bit of the story this afternoon. In terms of completeness I think my framework is complete. I can find no anomalies and you can classify anything relative to that framework.

And I agree with Iver, that there are n different tools you might want to use. You don’t have to know everything about every framework. One thing is, whatever the tool is that you need to deal with and out of the context of the periodic table metaphor, the ontological construct of The Zachman Framework, you can accommodate whatever artifacts the tool creates.

You don’t have to analyze every tool, whatever tool is necessary, if you want to do with business architecture, you can create whatever the business architecture manifestation is. If you want to know what DoDAF is, you can create the DoDAF artifacts. You can create any composite, and you can create any compound from the periodic table. It’s the same idea.

I wouldn’t spend my life trying to understand all these frameworks. You have to operate the enterprise, you have to manage the enterprise and whatever the tool is, it’s required to do whatever it is that you need to do and there is something good about everything and nothing necessarily does everything.

So use the tool that’s appropriate and then you can create whatever the composite constructs are required by that tool out of the primitive components of the framework. I wouldn’t try to understand all the frameworks.

What’s missing

Forde: On a daily basis there is a line of people at these conferences coming to tell me what’s missing from TOGAF. Recently we conducted a survey through the Association of Enterprise Architects about what people needed to see. Basically the stuff came back pretty much, please give us more guidance that’s specific to my situation, a recipe for how to solve world hunger, or something like that. We are not in the role of providing that level of prescriptive detail.

The value side of the equation is the flexibility of the framework to a certain degree to allow many different industries and many different practitioners drive value for their business out of using that particular tool.

So some people will find value in the content metamodel in the TOGAF Framework and the other components of it, but if you are not happy with that, if it doesn’t meet your need, flip over to The Zachman Framework or vice versa.

John made it very clear earlier that the value in the framework that he has built throughout his career and has been used repeatedly around the world is its rigor, it’s comprehensiveness, but he made very clear, it’s not a method. There is nothing in there to tell you how to go do it.

So you could criticize The Zachman Framework for a lack of method or you could spend your time talking about the value of it as a very useful tool to get X, Y, and Z done.

From a practitioner’s standpoint, what one practitioner does is interesting in a value, but if you have a practice between 200 and 400 architects, you don’t want everybody running around like a loose cannon doing it their way, in my opinion. As a practice manager or leader you need something that makes those resources very, very effective. And when you are in a practice of that size, you probably have a handful of people trying to figure out how the frameworks come together, but most of the practitioners are tasked with taking what the organization says is their best practice and executing on it.

We are looking at improving the level of guidance provided by the TOGAF material, the standard and guidance about how to do specific scenarios.

For example, how to jumpstart an architecture practice, how to build a secure architecture, how to do business architecture well? Those are the kinds of things that we have had feedback on and we are working on around that particular specification.

Brown: So if you are employed by the US Department of Defense you would be required to use DoDAF, if you are an enterprise architect, because of the views it provides. But people like Terri Blevins that did work in the DoD many years, used TOGAF to populate DoDAF. It’s a method, and the method is the great strength.

If you want to have more information on that, there are a number of white papers on our website about using TOGAF with DoDAF, TOGAF with COBIT, TOGAF with Zachman, TOGAF with everything else.

Forde: TOGAF with frameworks, TOGAF with buy in, the thing to look at is the ecosystem of information around these frameworks is where the value proposition really is. If you are trying to bootstrap your standards practice inside, the framework is of interest, but applied use, driving to the value proposition for your business function is the critical area to focus on.

The panel, which examined the synergy among the major EA frameworks, consists of moderator Allen Brown, President and Chief Executive Officer, The Open Group; Iver Bank, an Enterprise Architect, Cambia Health Solutions; Dr. Beryl Bellman, Academic Director, FEAC Institute; John Zachman, Chairman and CEO of Zachman International, and originator of the Zachman Framework; and Chris Forde, General Manager, Asia and Pacific Region and Vice President, Enterprise Architecture, The Open Group.

Transcript available here.

Join the conversation @theopengroup #ogchat

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Filed under ArchiMate®, big data, Business Architecture, Cloud, Data management, Enterprise Architecture, Enterprise Transformation, Standards, TOGAF®, Uncategorized

A World Without IT4IT: Why It’s Time to Run IT Like a Business

By Dave Lounsbury, CTO, The Open Group

IT departments today are under enormous pressure. In the digital world, businesses have become dependent on IT to help them remain competitive. However, traditional IT departments have their roots in skills such as development or operations and have not been set up to handle a business and technology environment that is trying to rapidly adapt to a constantly changing marketplace. As a result, many IT departments today may be headed for a crisis.

At one time, IT departments led technology adoption in support of business. Once a new technology was created—departmental servers, for instance—it took a relatively long time before businesses took advantage of it and even longer before they became dependent on the technology. But once a business did adopt the technology, it became subject to business rules—expectations and parameters for reliability, maintenance and upgrades that kept the technology up to date and allowed the business it supported to keep up with the market.

As IT became more entrenched in organizations throughout the 1980s and 1990s, IT systems increased in size and scope as technology companies fought to keep pace with market forces. In large enterprises, in particular, IT’s function became to maintain large infrastructures, requiring small armies of IT workers to sustain them.

A number of forces have combined to change all that. Today, most businesses do their business operations digitally—what Constellation Research analyst Andy Mulholland calls “Front Office Digital Business.” Technology-as-a-service models have changed how the technologies and applications are delivered and supported, with support and upgrades coming from outsourced vendors, not in-house staff. With Cloud models, an IT department may not even be necessary. Entrepreneurs can spin up a company with a swipe of a credit card and have all the technology they need at their fingertips, hosted remotely in the Cloud.

The Gulf between IT and Business

Although the gap between IT and business is closing, the gulf in how IT is run still remains. In structure, most IT departments today remain close to their technology roots. This is, in part, because IT departments are still run by technologists and engineers whose primary skills lie in the challenge (and excitement) of creating new technologies. Not every skilled engineer makes a good businessperson, but in most organizations, people who are good at their jobs often get promoted into management whether or not they are ready to manage. The Peter Principle is a problem that hinders many organizations, not just IT departments.

What has happened is that IT departments have not traditionally been run as if they were a business. Good business models for how IT should be run have been piecemeal or slow to develop—despite IT’s role in how the rest of the business is run. Although some standards have been developed as guides for how different parts of IT should be run (COBIT for governance, ITIL for service management, TOGAF®, an Open Group standard, for architecture), no overarching standard has been developed that encompasses how to holistically manage all of IT, from systems administration to development to management through governance and, of course, staffing. For all its advances, IT has yet to become a well-oiled business machine.

The business—and technological—climate today is not the same as it was when companies took three years to do a software upgrade. Everything in today’s climate happens nearly instantaneously. “Convergence” technologies like Cloud Computing, Big Data, social media, mobile and the Internet of Things are changing the nature of IT. New technical skills and methodologies are emerging every day, as well. Although languages such as Java or C may remain the top programming languages, new languages like Pig or Hive are emerging everyday, as are new approaches to development, such as Scrum, Agile or DevOps.

The Consequences of IT Business as Usual

With these various forces facing IT, departments will either need to change and adopt a model where IT is managed more effectively or departments may face some impending chaos that ends up hindering their organizations.

Without an effective management model for IT, companies won’t be able to mobilize quickly for a digital age. Even something as simple as an inability to utilize data could result in problems such as investing in a product prototype that customers aren’t interested in. Those are mistakes most companies can’t afford to make these days.

Having an umbrella view of what all of IT does also allows the department to make better decisions. With technology and development trends changing so quickly, how do you know what will fit your organization’s business goals? You want to take advantage of the trends or technologies that make sense for the company and leave behind those that don’t.

For example, in DevOps, one of the core concepts is to bring the development phase into closer alignment with releasing and operating the software. You need to know your business’s operating model to determine whether this approach will actually work or not. Having a sense of that also allows IT to make decisions about whether it’s wise to invest in training or hiring staff skilled in those methods or buying new technologies that will allow you to adopt the model.

Not having that management view can leave companies subject to the whims of technological evolution and also to current IT fads. If you don’t know what’s valuable to your business, you run the risk of chasing every new fad that comes along. There’s nothing worse—as the IT guy—than being the person who comes to the management meeting each month saying you’re trying yet another new approach to solve a problem that never seems to get solved. Business people won’t respond to that and will wonder if you know what you’re doing. IT needs to be decisive and choose wisely.

These issues not only affect the IT department but to trickle up to business operations. Ineffective IT shops will not know when to invest in the correct technologies, and they may miss out on working with new technologies that could benefit the business. Without a framework to plan how technology fits into the business, you could end up in the position of having great IT bows and arrows but when you walk out into the competitive world, you get machine-gunned.

The other side is cost and efficiency—if the entire IT shop isn’t running smoothly throughout then you end up spending too much money on problems, which in turn takes money away from other parts of the business that can keep the organization competitive. Failing to manage IT can lead to competitive loss across numerous areas within a business.

A New Business Model

To help prevent the consequences that may result if IT isn’t run more like a business, industry leaders such as Accenture; Achmea; AT&T; HP IT; ING Bank; Munich RE; PwC; Royal Dutch Shell; and University of South Florida, recently formed a consortium to address how to better run the business of IT. With billions of dollars invested in IT each year, these companies realized their investments must be made wisely and show governable results in order succeed.

The result of their efforts is The Open Group IT4IT™ Forum, which released a Snapshot of its proposed Reference Architecture for running IT more like a business this past November. The Reference Architecture is meant to serve as an operating model for IT, providing the “missing link” that previous IT-function specific models have failed to address. The model allows IT to achieve the same level of business, discipline, predictability and efficiency as other business functions.

The Snapshot includes a four-phase Value Chain for IT that provides both an operating model for an IT business and outlines how value can be added at every stage of the IT process. In addition to providing suggested best practices for delivery, the Snapshot includes technical models for the IT tools that organizations can use, whether for systems monitoring, release monitoring or IT point solutions. Providing guidance around IT tools will allow these tools to become more interoperable so that they can exchange information at the right place at the right time. In addition, it will allow for better control of information flow between various parts of the business through the IT shop, thus saving IT departments the time and hassle of aggregating tools or cobbling together their own tools and solutions. Staffing guidance models are also included in the Reference Architecture.

Why IT4IT now? Digitalization cannot be held back, particularly in an era of Cloud, Big Data and an impending Internet of Things. An IT4IT Reference Architecture provides more than just best practices for IT—it puts IT in the context of a business model that allows IT to be a contributing part of an enterprise, providing a roadmap for digital businesses to compete and thrive for years to come.

Join the conversation! @theopengroup #ogchat

By The Open GroupDavid is Chief Technical Officer (CTO) and Vice President, Services for The Open Group. As CTO, he ensures that The Open Group’s people and IT resources are effectively used to implement the organization’s strategy and mission.  As VP of Services, David leads the delivery of The Open Group’s proven collaboration processes for collaboration and certification both within the organization and in support of third-party consortia.

David holds a degree in Electrical Engineering from Worcester Polytechnic Institute, and is holder of three U.S. patents.


Filed under Cloud, digital technologies, Enterprise Transformation, Internet of Things, IT, IT4IT, TOGAF, TOGAF®

The Open Group Executive Round Table Event at Mumbai

By Bala Peddigari, Head – HiTech TEG and Innovation Management, Tata Consultancy Services Limited

The Open Group organized the Executive Round Table Event at Taj Lands End in Mumbai on November 12, 2014. The goal was to brief industry executives on how The Open Group can help in promoting Enterprise Architecture within the organization, and how it helps to stay relevant to the Indianized context in realizing and bringing in positive change. Executives from the Government of Maharastra, Reserve Bank of India, NSDL, Indian Naval Service, SVC Bank, Vodafone, SVC Bank, SP Jain Institute, Welingkar Institute of Management, VSIT,Media Lab Asia, Association of Enterprise Architects (AEA), Computer Society of India and others were present.

By Bala PeddigariJames de Raeve, Vice President, Certification of The Open Group introduced The Open Group to the executives and explained the positive impact it is creating in driving Enterprise Architecture. He noted most of the EA functions, Work Groups and Forums are driven by the participating companies and Architects associated with them. James revealed facts stating that India is in fourth position in TOGAF® certification and Bangalore is second only to London. He also discussed the newest Forum, The Open Group IT4IT™ Forum and its objective to solve some of the key business problems and build Reference Architecture for managing the business of IT.  The mission of The Open Group IT4IT Forum is to develop, evolve and drive the adoption of the vendor-neutral IT4IT Reference Architecture.

Rajesh Aggarwal, Principal Secretary IT, Government of Maharashtra, attended the Round Table and shared his view on how Enterprise Architecture can help some of the key Government initiatives drive citizen-centric change. An example he used is the change in policies for senior citizens who seek pension. They show up every November at the bank to identify themselves for Life Certificate to continue getting pension. This process can be simplified through IT. He used an excellent analogy of making phone calls to have pizza delivered from Pizza Hut and consumer goods from Flipkart. Similarly his vision is to get Smart and Digital Governance where citizens can call and get the services at their door.

MumbaiRajeesh Aggarwal

70886-uppalJason Uppal, Chief Architect (Open CA Level 3 Certified), QR Systems in Canada presented a session on “Digital Economy and Enterprise Architecture”. Jason emphasized the need for Enterprise Architecture and why now in the networked and digital economy you need intent but not money to drive change. He also shared his thoughts on tools for this new game – Industrial Engineering and Enterprise Architecture focus to improve the performance capabilities across the value chain. Jason explained how EA can help in building the capability in the organization, defined value chain leveraging EA capabilities and transforming enterprise capabilities to apply those strategies. The key performance indicators of Enterprise Architecture can be measured through Staff Engagement, Time and Cost, Project Efficiency, Capability Effectiveness, Information Quality which explains the maturity of Enterprise Architecture in the organization. During his talk, Jason brought out many analogies to share his own experiences where Enterprise Architecture simplified and brought in much transformation in Healthcare. Jason shared an example of Carlos Ghosn who manages three companies worth $140 billion USD. He explains further the key to his success is to protect his change-agents and provide them the platform and opportunity to experiment. Enterprise Architecture is all about people who make it happen and bring impact.

The heart of the overall Executive Round Table Event was a panel session on “Enterprise Architecture in India Context”. Panelists were Jason Uppal, Rakhi Gupta from TCS and myself who shared perspectives on the following questions:

  1. Enterprise Architecture and Agile – Do they complement?
  2. How are CIOs seeing Enterprise Architecture when compared to other CXOs?
  3. I have downloaded TOGAF, what should I do next?
  4. How is Enterprise Architecture envisioned in the next 5 years?
  5. How can Enterprise Architecture help the “Make in India” initiative?
  6. Should Enterprise Architecture have a course in academics for students?

I explained how Enterprise Architecture is relevant in academics and how it can enable the roots to build agile-based system to quickly respond to the changes. I also brought in my perspective how Enterprise Architecture can show strengths while covering the weaknesses. Furthermore, TOGAF applies and benefits the context of the Indian future economy. Jason explained the change in dynamics in the education system to build a query-based learning approach to find and use. Rakhi shared her thoughts based on experience associated with Department of Posts Transformation keeping a citizen-centric Enterprise Architecture approach.

Overall, it has created a positive wave of understanding the importance of Enterprise Architecture and applying the TOGAF knowledge consistently to pave the road for the future. The event was well organized by Abraham Koshy and team, with good support from CSI Mumbai and AEA Mumbai chapters.

By Bala PeddigariBala Prasad Peddigari has worked with Tata Consultancy Services Limited for over 15 years. Bala practices Enterprise Architecture and evangelizes platform solutions, performance and scalable architectures and Cloud technology initiatives within TCS.  He heads the Technology Excellence Group for HiTech Vertical. Bala drives the architecture and technology community initiatives within TCS through coaching, mentoring and grooming techniques.

Bala has a Masters in Computer Applications from University College of Engineering, Osmania. He is an Open Group Master IT Certified Architect and serves as a Board Member in The Open Group Certifying Authority. He received accolades for his cloud architectural strengths and published his papers in IEEE.  Bala is a regular speaker in Open Group and technology events and is a member of The Open Group Open Platform 3.0™.


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Filed under Accreditations, architecture, Certifications, Cloud, Conference, Enterprise Architecture, Open CA, Open CITS, Open Platform 3.0, Standards, TOGAF, TOGAF®

The Emergence of the Third Platform

By Andras Szakal, Vice President and Chief Technology Officer, IBM U.S. Federal

By 2015 there will be more than 5.6 billion personal devices in use around the world. Personal mobile computing, business systems, e-commerce, smart devices and social media are generating an astounding 2.5 billion gigabytes of data per day. Non-mobile network enabled intelligent devices, often referred to as the Internet of Things (IoT), is poised to explode to over 1 trillion devices by 2015.

Rapid innovation and astounding growth in smart devices is driving new business opportunities and enterprise solutions. Many of these new opportunities and solutions are based on deep insight gained through analysis of the vast amount of data being generated.

The expansive growth of personal and pervasive computing power continues to drive innovation that is giving rise to a new class of systems and a pivot to a new generation of computing platform. Over the last fifty years, two generations of computing platform have dominated the business and consumer landscape. The first generation was dominated by the monolithic mainframe, while distributed computing and the Internet characterized the second generation. Cloud computing, Big Data/Analytics, the Internet of Things (IoT), mobile computing and even social media are the core disruptive technologies that are now converging at the cross roads of the emergence of a third generation of computing platform.

This will require new approaches to enterprise and business integration and interoperability. Industry bodies like The Open Group must help guide customers through the transition by facilitating customer requirements, documenting best practices, establishing integration standards and transforming the current approach to Enterprise Architecture, to adapt to the change in which organizations will build, use and deploy the emerging third generation of computing platform.

Enterprise Computing Platforms

An enterprise computing platform provides the underlying infrastructure and operating environment necessary to support business interactions. Enterprise systems are often comprised of complex application interactions necessary to support business processes, customer interactions, and partner integration. These interactions coupled with the underlying operating environment define an enterprise systems architecture.

The hallmark of successful enterprise systems architecture is a standardized and stable systems platform. This is an underlying operating environment that is stable, supports interoperability, and is based on repeatable patterns.

Enterprise platforms have evolved from the monolithic mainframes of the 1960s and 1970s through the advent of the distributed systems in the 1980s. The mainframe-based architecture represented the first true enterprise operating platform, referred to henceforth as the First Platform. The middleware-based distributed systems that followed and ushered in the dawn of the Internet represented the second iteration of platform architecture, referred to as the Second Platform.

While the creation of the Internet and the advent of web-based e-commerce are of historical significance, the underlying platform was still predominantly based on distributed architectures and therefore is not recognized as a distinct change in platform architecture. However, Internet-based e-commerce and service-based computing considerably contributed to the evolution toward the next distinct version of the enterprise platform. This Third Platform will support the next iteration of enterprise systems, which will be born out of multiple simultaneous and less obvious disruptive technology shifts.

The Convergence of Disruptive Technologies

The emergence of the third generation of enterprise platforms is manifested at the crossroads of four distinct, almost simultaneous, disruptive technology shifts; cloud computing, mobile computing, big data-based analytics and the IoT. The use of applications based on these technologies, such as social media and business-driven insight systems, have contributed to both the convergence and rate of adoption.

These technologies are dramatically changing how enterprise systems are architected, how customers interact with business, and the rate and pace of development and deployment across the enterprise. This is forcing vendors, businesses, and governments to shift their systems architectures to accommodate integrated services that leverage cloud infrastructure, while integrating mobile solutions and supporting the analysis of the vast amount of data being generated by mobile solutions and social media. All this is happening while maintaining the integrity of the evolving businesses capabilities, processes, and transactions that require integration with business systems such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM).

Cloud computing and the continued commoditization of computer storage are key facilitating elements of this convergence. Cloud computing lowers the complexity of enterprise computing through virtualization and automated infrastructure provisioning, while solid-state and software-based Internet storage has made big data practical and affordable. Cloud computing solutions continue to evolve and offer innovative services like Platform as a Service (PaaS)-based development environments that integrate directly with big data solutions. Higher density, cloud-based and solid-state storage continue to lower the cost and complexity of storage and big data solutions.

The emergence of the smartphone and enterprise mobile computing is a key impetus for the emergence of big data solutions and an explosion of innovative storage technologies. The modern mobile platform, with all its rich applications, device sensors, and access to social networks, is almost single-handedly responsible for the explosion of data and the resulting rush to provide solutions to analyze and act on the insight contained in the vast ocean of personalized information. In turn, this phenomenon has created a big data market ecosystem based on the premise that open data is the new natural resource.

The emergence of sensor-enabled smartphones has foreshadowed the potential value of making everyday devices interconnected and intelligent by adding network-based sensors that allow devices to enhance their performance by interacting with their environment, and through collaboration with other devices and enterprise systems in the IoT. For example, equipment manufacturers are using sensors to gain insight into the condition of fielded equipment. This approach reduces both the mean time to failure and pinpoints manufacturing quality issues and potential design flaws. This system of sensors also integrates with the manufacturer’s internal supply chain systems to identify needed parts, and optimizes the distribution process. In turn, the customer benefits by avoiding equipment downtime through scheduling maintenance before a part fails.

Over time, the IoT will require an operating environment for devices that integrates with existing enterprise business systems. But this will require that smart devices effectively integrate with cloud-based enterprise business systems, the enterprise customer engagement systems, as well as the underlying big data infrastructure responsible for gleaning insight into the data this vast network of sensors will generate. While each of these disruptive technology shifts has evolved separately, they share a natural affinity for interaction, collaboration, and enterprise integration that can be used to optimize an enterprise’s business processes.

Evolving Enterprise Business Systems

Existing enterprise systems (ERP, CRM, Supply Chain, Logistics, etc.) are still essential to the foundation of a business or government and form Systems of Record (SoR) that embody core business capabilities and the authoritative processes based on master data records. The characteristics of SoR are:

  • Encompass core business functions
  • Transactional in nature
  • Based on structured databases
  • Authoritative source of information (master data records)
  • Access is regulated
  • Changes follow a rigorous governance process.

Mobile systems, social media platforms, and Enterprise Market Management (EMM) solutions form another class of systems called Systems of Engagement (SoE). Their characteristics are:

  • Interact with end-users through open collaborative interfaces (mobile, social media, etc.)
  • High percentage of unstructured information
  • Personalized to end-user preferences
  • Context-based analytical business rules and processing
  • Access is open and collaborative
  • Evolves quickly and according to the needs of the users.

The emergence of the IoT is embodied in a new class of system, Systems of Sensors (SoS), which includes pervasive computing and control. Their characteristics are:

  • Based on autonomous network-enabled devices
  • Devices that use sensors to collect information about the environment
  • Interconnected with other devices or enterprise engagement systems
  • Changing behavior based on intelligent algorithms and environmental feedback
  • Developed through formal product engineering process
  • Updates to device firmware follow a continuous lifecycle.

The Third Platform

The Third Platform is a convergence of cloud computing, big data solutions, mobile systems and the IoT integrated into the existing enterprise business systems.

The Three Classes of System

Figure 1: The Three Classes of Systems within the Third Platform

The successful implementation and deployment of enterprise SoR has been embodied in best practices, methods, frameworks, and techniques that have been distilled into enterprise architecture. The same level of rigor and pattern-based best practices will be required to ensure the success of solutions based on Third Platform technologies. Enterprise architecture methods and models need to evolve to include guidance, governance, and design patterns for implementing business solutions that span the different classes of system.

The Third Platform builds upon many of the concepts that originated with Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and dominated the closing stanza of the period dominated by the Second Platform technologies. The rise of the Third Platform provides the technology and environment to enable greater maturity of service integration within an enterprise.

The Open Group Service Integration Maturity Model (OSIMM) standard[1] provides a way in which an organization can assess its level of service integration maturity. Adoption of the Third Platform inherently addresses many of the attributes necessary to achieve the highest levels of service integration maturity defined by OSIMM. It will enable new types of application architecture that can support dynamically reconfigurable business and infrastructure services across a wide variety of devices (SoS), internal systems (SoR), and user engagement platforms (SoE).

Solution Development

These new architectures and the underlying technologies will require adjustments to how organizations approach enterprise IT governance, to lower the barrier of entry necessary to implement and integrate the technologies. Current adoption requires extensive expertise to implement, integrate, deploy, and maintain the systems. First market movers have shown the rest of the industry the realm of the possible, and have reaped the rewards of the early adopter.

The influence of cloud and mobile-based technologies has changed the way in which solutions will be developed, delivered, and maintained. SoE-based solutions interact directly with customers and business partners, which necessitates a continuous delivery of content and function to align with the enterprise business strategy.

Most cloud-based services employ a roll-forward test and delivery model. A roll-forward model allows an organization to address functional inadequacies and defects in almost real-time, with minimal service interruptions. The integration and automation of development and deployment tools and processes reduces the risk of human error and increases visibility into quality. In many cases, end-users are not even aware of updates and patch deployments.

This new approach to development and operations deployment and maintenance is referred to as DevOps – which combines development and operations tools, governance, and techniques into a single tool set and management practice. This allows the business to dictate, not only the requirements, but also the rate and pace of change aligned to the needs of the enterprise.

[1] The Open Group Service Integration Maturity Model (OSIMM), Open Group Standard (C117), published by The Open Group, November 2011; refer to: www.opengroup.org/bookstore/catalog/c117.htm


Figure 2: DevOps: The Third Platform Solution Lifecycle

The characteristics of an agile DevOps approach are:

  • Harmonization of resources and practices between development and IT operations
  • Automation and integration of the development and deployment processes
  • Alignment of governance practices to holistically address development and operations with business needs
  • Optimization of the DevOps process through continuous feedback and metrics.

In contrast to SoE, SoR have a slower velocity of delivery. Such systems are typically released on fixed, pre-planned release schedules. Their inherent stability of features and capabilities necessitates a more structured and formal development approach, which traditionally equates to fewer releases over time. Furthermore, the impact changes to SoR have on core business functionality limits the magnitude and rate of change an organization is able to tolerate. But the emergence of the Third Platform will continue to put pressure on these core business systems to become more agile and flexible in order to adapt to the magnitude of events and information generated by mobile computing and the IoT.

As the technologies of the Third Platform coalesce, organizations will need to adopt hybrid development and delivery models based on agile DevOps techniques that are tuned appropriately to the class of system (SoR, SoS or SoS) and aligned with an acceptable rate of change.

DevOps is a key attribute of the Third Platform that will shift the fundamental management structure of the IT department. The Third Platform will usher in an era where one monolithic IT department is no longer necessary or even feasible. The line between business function and IT delivery will be imperceptible as this new platform evolves. The lines of business will become intertwined with the enterprise IT functions, ultimately leading to the IT department and business capability becoming synonymous. The recent emergence of the Enterprise Market Management organizations is an example where the marketing capabilities and the IT delivery systems are managed by a single executive – the Enterprise Marketing Officer.

The Challenge

The emergence of a new enterprise computing platform will usher in opportunity and challenge for businesses and governments that have invested in the previous generation of computing platforms. Organizations will be required to invest in both expertise and technologies to adopt the Third Platform. Vendors are already offering cloud-based Platform as a Service (PaaS) solutions that will provide integrated support for developing applications across the three evolving classes of systems – SoS, SoR, and SoE. These new development platforms will continue to evolve and give rise to new application architectures that were unfathomable just a few years ago. The emergence of the Third Platform is sure to spawn an entirely new class of dynamically reconfigurable intelligent applications and devices where applications reprogram their behavior based on the dynamics of their environment.

Almost certainly this shift will result in infrastructure and analytical capacity that will facilitate the emergence of cognitive computing which, in turn, will automate the very process of deep analysis and, ultimately, evolve the enterprise platform into the next generation of computing. This shift will require new approaches, standards and techniques for ensuring the integrity of an organization’s business architecture, enterprise architecture and IT systems architectures.

To effectively embrace the Third Platform, organizations will need to ensure that they have the capability to deliver boundaryless systems though integrated services that are comprised of components that span the three classes of systems. This is where communities like The Open Group can help to document architectural patterns that support agile DevOps principles and tooling as the Third Platform evolves.

Technical standardization of the Third Platform has only just begun; for example, standardization of the cloud infrastructure has only recently crystalized around OpenStack. Mobile computing platform standardization remains fragmented across many vendor offerings even with the support of rigid developer ecosystems and open sourced runtime environments. The standardization and enterprise support for SoS is still nascent but underway within groups like the Allseen Alliance and with the Open Group’s QLM workgroup.

Call to Action

The rate and pace of innovation, standardization, and adoption of Third Platform technologies is astonishing but needs the guidance and input from the practitioner community. It is incumbent upon industry communities like the Open Group to address the gaps between traditional Enterprise Architecture and an approach that scales to the Internet timescales being imposed by the adoption of the Third Platform.

The question is not whether Third Platform technologies will dominate the IT landscape, but rather how quickly this pivot will occur. Along the way, the industry must apply the open standards processes to ensure against the fragmentation into multiple incompatible technology platforms.

The Open Group has launched a new forum to address these issues. The Open Group Open Platform 3.0™ Forum is intended to provide a vendor-neutral environment where members share knowledge and collaborate to develop standards and best practices necessary to help guide the evolution of Third Platform technologies and solutions. The Open Platform 3.0 Forum will provide a place where organizations can help illuminate their challenges in adopting Third Platform technologies. The Open Platform 3.0 Forum will help coordinate standards activities that span existing Open Group Forums and ensure a coordinated approach to Third Platform standardization and development of best practices.

Innovation itself is not enough to ensure the value and viability of the emerging platform. The Open Group can play a unique role through its focus on Boundaryless Information Flow™ to facilitate the creation of best practices and integration techniques across the layers of the platform architecture.

andras-szakalAndras Szakal, VP and CTO, IBM U.S. Federal, is responsible for IBM’s industry solution technology strategy in support of the U.S. Federal customer. Andras was appointed IBM Distinguished Engineer and Director of IBM’s Federal Software Architecture team in 2005. He is an Open Group Distinguished Certified IT Architect, IBM Certified SOA Solution Designer and a Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional (CSSLP).  Andras holds undergraduate degrees in Biology and Computer Science and a Masters Degree in Computer Science from James Madison University. He has been a driving force behind IBM’s adoption of government IT standards as a member of the IBM Software Group Government Standards Strategy Team and the IBM Corporate Security Executive Board focused on secure development and cybersecurity. Andras represents the IBM Software Group on the Board of Directors of The Open Group and currently holds the Chair of The Open Group Certified Architect (Open CA) Work Group. More recently, he was appointed chair of The Open Group Trusted Technology Forum and leads the development of The Open Trusted Technology Provider Framework.

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IT Trends Empowering Your Business is Focus of The Open Group London 2014

By The Open Group

The Open Group, the vendor-neutral IT consortium, is hosting an event in London October 20th-23rd at the Central Hall, Westminster. The theme of this year’s event is on how new IT trends are empowering improvements in business and facilitating enterprise transformation.

Objectives of this year’s event:

  • Show the need for Boundaryless Information Flow™, which would result in more interoperable, real-time business processes throughout all business ecosystems
  • Examine the use of developing technology such as Big Data and advanced data analytics in the financial services sector: to minimize risk, provide more customer-centric products and identify new market opportunities
  • Provide a high-level view of the Healthcare ecosystem that identifies entities and stakeholders which must collaborate to enable the vision of Boundaryless Information Flow
  • Detail how the growth of “The Internet of Things” with online currencies and mobile-enabled transactions has changed the face of financial services, and poses new threats and opportunities
  • Outline some of the technological imperatives for Healthcare providers, with the use of The Open Group Open Platform 3.0™ tools to enable products and services to work together and deploy emerging technologies freely and in combination
  • Describe how to develop better interoperability and communication across organizational boundaries and pursue global standards for Enterprise Architecture for all industries

Key speakers at the event include:

  • Allen Brown, President & CEO, The Open Group
  • Magnus Lindkvist, Futurologist
  • Hans van Kesteren, VP & CIO Global Functions, Shell International, The Netherlands
  • Daniel Benton, Global Managing Director, IT Strategy, Accenture

Registration for The Open Group London 2014 is open and available to members and non-members. Please register here.

Join the conversation via Twitter – @theopengroup #ogLON

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Filed under architecture, Boundaryless Information Flow™, Business Architecture, Enterprise Architecture, Future Technologies, Governance, Healthcare, Internet of Things, Interoperability, Open Platform 3.0, Standards, Uncategorized