Tag Archives: UNIX

The Enviable Pedigree of UNIX® and POSIX®

By Andrew Josey, VP, Standards and Certification, The Open Group

Technology can be a fickle thing. Spurred by perpetual innovation, the one constant in the tech industry is change. As such, we can expect that whatever is the hottest thing in the industry today—Cloud, Big Data, Mobile, Social, what have you—will be yesterday’s news within a few years’ time. That is how the industry moves and sustains itself, with constant development and creativity—all of which is only getting faster and faster.

But today’s breakthroughs would be nowhere and would not have been possible without what came before them—a fact we sometimes forget. Mainframes led to personal computers, which gave way to laptops, then tablets and smartphones, and now the Internet of Things. Today much of the interoperability we enjoy between our devices and systems—whether at home, the office or across the globe—owes itself to efforts in the 1980s and 1990s to make an interoperable operating system (OS) that could be used across diverse computing environments—the UNIX operating system.

Created at AT&T Bell Laboratories in the early 1970s, the UNIX operating system was developed as a self-contained system that could be easily adapted and run on commodity hardware. By the 1980s, UNIX workstations were widely used in academia and commercially, with a large number of system suppliers, such as HP, IBM, and Sun Microsystems (now Oracle), developing their own flavors of the OS.

At the same time, a number of organizations began standardization efforts around the system. By the late 1980s, three separate organizations were publishing different standards for the UNIX operating system, including IEEE, ISO/IEC JTC1 and X/Open (which eventually became The Open Group).

As part of the standardization efforts undertaken by IEEE, it developed a small set of application programming interfaces (APIs). This effort was known as POSIX, or Portable Operation System Interface. Published in 1988, the POSIX.1 standard was the first attempt outside the work at AT&T and BSD (the UNIX derivative developed at the University of California at Berkeley) to create common APIs for UNIX systems. In parallel, X/Open (an industry consortium consisting at that time of over twenty UNIX suppliers) began developing a set of standards aligned with POSIX that consisted of a superset of the POSIX APIs.  The X/Open standard was known as the X/Open Portability Guide and had an emphasis on usability. ISO also got involved in the efforts, by taking the POSIX standard and internationalizing it.

In 1995, the Single UNIX Specification was created to represent the core of the UNIX brand. Born of a superset of POSIX APIs, the specification provided a richer set of requirements than POSIX for functionality, scalability, reliability and portability for multiuser computing systems. At the same time, the UNIX trademark was transferred to X/Open (now The Open Group). Today, The Open Group holds the trademark in trust for the industry, and suppliers that develop UNIX systems undergo certification, which includes over 40,000 tests, to assure their compatibility and conformance to the standard.

These tri-furcated efforts by separate standards organizations continued through most of the 1990s, with the people involved in developing the standards constantly bouncing between organizations and separate meetings. In late 1997, a number of vendors became tired of having three separate parallel efforts to keep track of and they suggested all three organizations come together to work on one standard.

In 1998, The Open Group, which had formed through the merger of X/Open and the Open Software Foundation, met with the ISO/IEC JTC 1 and IEEE technical experts for an inaugural meeting at IBM’s offices in Austin, Texas. At this meeting, it was agreed that they would work together on a single set of standards that each organization could approve and publish. Since then the approach to specification development has been “write once, adopt everywhere,” with the deliverables being a set of specifications that carry the IEEE POSIX designation, The Open Group Technical Standard designation, and the ISO/IEC designation. Known as the Austin Group, the three bodies still work together today to progress both the joint standard. The new standard not only streamlined the documentation needed to work with the APIs but simplified what was available to the market under one common standard.

A constant evolution

As an operating system that forms the foundational underpinnings of many prominent computing systems, the UNIX OS has always had a number of advantages over other operating systems. One of the advantages is that those APIs have made it possible to write code that conforms to the standard that can run on multiple systems made by different vendors. If you write your code to the UNIX standard, it will run on systems made by IBM, HP, Oracle and Apple, since they all follow the UNIX standard and have submitted their operating systems for formal certification. Free OSs such as Linux and BSD also support the majority of the UNIX and POSIX APIs, so those systems are also compatible with all the others. That level of portability is key for the industry and users, enabling application portability across a wide range of systems.

In addition, UNIX is known for its stability and reliability—even at great scale. Apple claims over 80 million Mac OS X systems in use today – all of them UNIX certified. In addition, the UNIX OS forms the basis for many “big iron” systems. The operating systems’ high through-put and processing power have made it an ideal OS for everything from supercomputing to systems used by the government and financial sectors—all of which require high reliability, scale and fast data processing.

The standard has also been developed such that it allows users to “slice and dice” portions of it for use even when they don’t require the full functionality of the system, since one size does not fit all. Known as “profiles,” these subsets of the standard API sets can be used for any number of applications or devices. So although not full UNIX systems, we see a lot of devices out there with the standard APIs inside them, notably set top boxes, home routers, in-flight entertainment systems and many smart phones.

Although the UNIX and POSIX standards tend to be hidden, deeply embedded in the technologies and devices they enable today, they have been responsible for a great many advances across industries from science to entertainment. Consider the following:

  • Apple’s Mac OS X, the second widely most used desktop system today is a certified UNIX system
  • The first Internet server for the World Wide Web developed by Tim Berners Lee was developed on a UNIX system
  • The establishment of the World Wide Web was driven by the availability of connected UNIX systems
  • IBM’s Deep Blue supercomputer, a UNIX system, was the first computer to beat World Chess Champion Gary Kasparov in 1997
  • Both DNA and RNA were sequenced using a UNIX system
  • For eight consecutive years (1995-2002), each film nominated for an Academy Award for Distinguished Achievement in Visual Effects was created on Silicon Graphics computers running the UNIX OS.

Despite what one might think, both the UNIX and POSIX standards are continually under development still even today.  The community for each is very active—meeting more than 40 times a year to continue developing the specifications.

Things are always changing, so there are new areas of functionality to standardize. The standard is also large so there is a lot of maintenance and ways to improve clarity and portability across systems.

Although it might seem that once a technology becomes standardized it becomes static, standardization usually has the opposite effect—once there is a standard, the market tends to grow even more because organizations know that the technology is trusted and stable enough to build upon. Once the platform is there, you can add things to it and run things above it. We have about 2,000 application interfaces in UNIX today.

And as Internet-worked devices continue to proliferate in today’s connected world, chances are many of these systems that need big processing power, high reliability and huge scale are going to have a piece of the UNIX standard behind them—even if it’s deep beneath the covers.

By Andrew JoseyAndrew Josey is VP, Standards and Certification at The Open Group overseeing all certification and testing programs. He also manages the standards process for The Open Group.

Since joining the company in 1996, Andrew has been closely involved with the standards development, certification and testing activities of The Open Group. He has led many standards development projects including specification and certification development for the ArchiMate®, TOGAF®, POSIX® and UNIX® programs.

He is a member of the IEEE, USENIX, UKUUG, and the Association of Enterprise Architects (AEA).  He holds an MSc in Computer Science from University College London.

@theopengroup

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Filed under Association of Enterprise Architects, Certifications, digital business, EA, enterprise architecture, Internet of Things, IoT, IT, operating system, Oracle, Single UNIX Specification, standards, Uncategorized, UNIX

The Cloud: What’s UNIX® Got to Do With It?

By The Open Group

Cloud computing has come of age and is the solution of choice for CIOs looking to maximize use of resources while minimizing capital spend.[1] Cloud solutions, whether it is infrastructure, platform or service, have the appeal of business agility[2], without having to understand what is “under the hood”. However, what’s under the hood becomes even more important in a Cloud environment because there can be multiple services running with potential impact on numerous customers and the services provided to them.  For software as a service (SaaS) and platform as a service (PaaS) the hosting operating system is a critical component included in with Cloud environment as it directly impacts the performance of the Cloud solution. For infrastructure as a service (IaaS) the operating system is a critical choice made by the customer.

The CIO View

The CIO loves the idea of having the ability to rapidly provide on-demand ubiquitous computing resources to their company without the management overhead and integration challenges. The hardware infrastructure, network infrastructure, storage, hypervisor and OS must have high availability, scalability, and performance to meet the “5-nines” reliability expected (SCIT Report) with the operating system being especially critical component in that stack.[3]

UNIX, A Robust Platform for Cloud:

The Cloud needs to be highly available, scalable, secure, and robust for high-demand computing.  A certified UNIX® OS can provide this and enables companies to innovate in the Cloud.  A CIO would be looking at each element of the stack with a high degree of assurance that the Cloud solution has been well tested and has proven system and application interoperability, which also simplifies solution integration. The UNIX OS amplifies this simplicity delivering peace of mind for IT directors and above.

Who Is Choosing a UNIX Cloud?

Cloud Solution/Hosting Providers look to a UNIX Cloud infrastructure to service financial institutions looking to support high transactional environments like online and mobile banking marketplace.[4] Moreover, UNIX Cloud infrastructure provides a cost-effective, secure, and redundant environment.[5]

“Verizon serves both customers and employees with a UNIX Cloud infrastructure that implements enhanced agility, superior performance, easy maintainability, and effective cost control,” said Chris Riggin, Enterprise Architect at Verizon.[6]

HPE, IBM, and Oracle have expanded their services offerings to deliver UNIX mission-critical cloud and enterprise infrastructure, including their branded systems.  These UNIX Cloud solutions help their customers continue to scale while delivering business continuity and a low total cost of ownership.[7]

By The Open Group

Get more tools and resources on UNIX innovation on www.opengroup.org/UNIX or review these other resources today:

@theopengroup

© 2016 The Open Group

UNIX® is a Registered Trademark of The Open Group. Oracle® Solaris is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation. IBM AIX is a trademark of IBM Corporation. HP-UX is a registered trademark of HPE.

 

[1] Harvard Business Review, Cloud Computing Comes of Age, Page 3, 2015, https://www.oracle.com/webfolder/s/delivery_production/docs/FY15h1/doc16/HBR-Oracle-Report-webview.pdf

[2] Harvard Business Review, Cloud Computing Comes of Age, Page 3, 5, 6; 2015, https://www.oracle.com/webfolder/s/delivery_production/docs/FY15h1/doc16/HBR-Oracle-Report-webview.pdf

[3] UNIX: The “Always On” OS, 2016, https://blog.opengroup.org/2016/04/18/unix-the-always-on-os/

[4] Connectria / Sybase Customer Success Story:  http://www.connectria.com/content/case_studies/connectria_flyer_sybase_case_study.pdf

[5] Connectria AIX Hosting: http://www.connectria.com/technologies/aix_hosting.php

[6] UNIX Based Cloud, Harry Foxwell, Principal Consultant, Oracle, February 2016, https://blog.opengroup.org/2016/02/03/the-unix-based-cloud/

[7] a. http://www8.hp.com/us/en/business-solutions/solution.html?compURI=1167850#.VyfQzD9EmPB

  1. https://www.openstack.org/marketplace/distros/distribution/oracle/oracle-openstack-for-oracle-solaris
  2. http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/power/solutions/cloud/

 

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UNIX®, an Open Group Standard, Makes ISV Engineering’s Job Easier

By Caryl Takvorian, Staff Engineer, Oracle

We deal with hundreds of applications on a daily basis at Oracle® ISV Engineering. Most of them need to support multiple operating systems (OS) environments including Oracle Solaris. These applications are from all types of diverse industries – banking, communications, healthcare, gaming, and more. Each application varies in size from dozens to hundreds of millions of lines of code.

We understand the real value of standards, as we help Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) support Oracle Solaris. Oracle Solaris is UNIX certified and conforms to UNIX, an Open Group standard, providing assurance of stable interfaces and APIs. (NOTE: The UNIX standard is also inclusive of POSIX interface/API standard).  ISVs and application developers leverage these stable interfaces/APIs to make it easier to port, maintain and support their applications. The stable interfaces and APIs also reduce the overhead costs for ISVs as well as for Oracle’s support of the ISVs – a win-win for all involved. ISVs can be confident that the UNIX operating system, the robust foundation below their application, won’t change from release to release.

Oracle Solaris is unique in which it goes the extra mile by providing a binary application guarantee since its 2.6 release. The Oracle Solaris Binary Application Guarantee reflects the confidence in the compatibility of applications from one release of Oracle Solaris to the next and is designed to make re-qualification a thing of the past. If a binary application runs on a release of Oracle Solaris 2.6 or later, including their initial release and all updates, it will run on the later releases of Oracle Solaris, including their initial releases, and all updates, even if the application has not been recompiled for those latest releases. Binary compatibility between releases of Oracle Solaris helps protect your long-term investment in the development, training and maintenance of your applications.

It is important to note that the UNIX standard does not restrict the underlying implementation. This is key particularly because it allows Oracle Solaris engineers to innovate “under the hood”. Keeping the semantics and behavior of system calls intact, Oracle Solaris software engineers deliver the benefits of improved features, security performance, scalability, stability, etc. while not having a negative impact on application developers using Oracle Solaris. A sample list of applications supporting Oracle Solaris 11 can be found here.

By Caryl Takvorian, Staff Engineer, Oracle

Caryl Takvorian is a Principal Engineer in the Oracle ISV Engineering organization where he is the Solaris, Security and Telco lead. He has more than 20 years of experience with Solaris at Sun Microsystems, and now Oracle, helping ISVs adopt new technologies and develop software on Solaris. He joined SunSoft’s Developer Support organization in the UK in 1998 and from there moved to Market Development Engineering and now ISV Engineering at Oracle.

Caryl holds a French computer science engineering degree as well as an MSc in computer science from a US university. He lives near Southampton with his wife and his 4-year-old son.

Learn more about UNIX:

UNIX® is a registered trademark owned and managed by The Open Group. POSIX® is a registered Trademark of The IEEE.  Oracle Copyright 2016. All rights reserved.

 

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UNIX®: Lowering the Total Cost of Ownership

By The Open Group

The value of UNIX, as a technology and as a standard, has clearly been significant over its 45-year history as a technology and its 20-years as an open standard leading to tremendous innovation across numerous industries.  Developers, integrators and customers have benefited from its origins as open development platform to becoming an open standard. Recent blog articles have showcased how UNIX makes software development easier[1], is highly available[2], more secure[3] and scalable.  Total cost of ownership (TCO) is another area that has benefited from the UNIX standard and the operating systems that are UNIX certified.  For this article, TCO is primarily defined as the cost of acquisition, maintenance, and updating of a solution.

UNIX, an Open Group standard, enables customers’ choices in the building blocks for their desired solution. The choices come from the numerous UNIX certified operating systems on the market today – IBM AIX, HPE HP-UX, Inspur K-UX and Oracle Solaris to name a few.  The acquisition cost, as a part of the total cost of ownership, is also lower because of the compatibility and interoperability benefits of the UNIX standard.  IT organizations do not have to spend time fighting integration interoperability and incompatibility issues often found in non-certified operating systems.  Bottom line is that there is greater choice with less integration overhead leading to lower cost of acquisition.

The UNIX standard benefits the maintenance component of TCO ensuring there is compatibility and interoperability at the level of the operating system (OS) and the software dependencies on that OS. A UNIX certified OS also provides assurance of a level of quality with more than 45,000 functional tests having been passed to achieve certification. Of course, the other benefit of the UNIX standard is that it provides consistent system commands regardless of what UNIX OS is running in your data center so you don’t need train administrators on multiple operating systems or even have different administrators for different operating systems. An estimated 49% of system downtime is caused by human error, which should be mitigated by having custom ways to manage systems. UNIX provides greater determinism, which helps reduce maintenance component of TCO.[4]

The UNIX standard improves cost for system updates. While most OS vendors have their own method of doing system updates, there is greater confidence with UNIX compliant OS that regardless of how the update occurs the software and overall solution can rely on the continued assurance of consistent APIs, behavior, etc.  This turns out to be important as solutions get bigger and more complex the need to ensure continuity becomes particularly critical. Having standards in place help ensure that continuity in an ever changing solution.

TCO is greatly reduced because a UNIX certified operating system lowers the acquisition, maintenance and updating costs. The benefits of UNIX mentioned above also hint at reduced administrative, training and operational costs which also reduces the total cost of ownership which also should be consider in evaluating solution cost. IT decision makers should consider how choosing an operating system that is UNIX certified will benefit the TCO profile of their solution(s). This is especially true because making standards a requirement, during acquisition, costs so little yet can have such substantial benefits to TCO, enabling accelerated innovation and demonstrating good IT governance.

Cost of Ownership Price Tag Good Value Investment ROI

Get more information on UNIX with new tools and resources available at www.opengroup.org/UNIX or review some selected resources below:

[1] https://blog.opengroup.org/2016/03/11/unix-allowing-engineers-to-engineer

[2] https://blog.opengroup.org/2016/04/18/unix-the-always-on-os/

[3] https://blog.opengroup.org/2016/03/24/o-armor-unix-armor/

[4] https://blog.opengroup.org/2016/04/18/unix-the-always-on-os/

@theopengroup

 

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Choose UNIX® Inside

By The Open Group

In 1991, Intel Corporation started their “Intel Inside” marketing and branding campaign that turned Intel into a household name.[1] The power of “Intel Inside” was that it allowed consumers to quickly understand the value of what was “in-the-box” and make an informed buying decision.

UNIX® is another great example of a strong brand platform “inside” a bigger solution and, in some opinions, the UNIX platform has showcased a broader impact on technology than Intel.[2] An operating system (OS) that becomes UNIX certified has gone through the rigorous testing process to verify compliance with the Single UNIX Specification – The UNIX Standard.[3]  This certification provides an assurance to customers, independent software vendors, developers, integrators, and system vendors that a UNIX OS will work in a deterministic and well-defined way. “UNIX inside” allows IT decision-makers to quickly understand what is in the solution, even though the operating system is one component of the broader solution including hardware, applications, etc.

Another apt comparison to The UNIX Standard and  “Intel Inside” is UL certification mark often seen on devices using electricity. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) dates back to 1894 providing “safety-related certification, validation, testing inspection, auditing, advising and training services” around electrical devices and components.[4] From the early days of commercialized electronics a UL listed product gave confidence to consumers that what they buy would meet a rigorous set of standards from components, to wiring, to the product itself.

In the case of UNIX, The Open Group serves as the lab providing assurance to the end customers that every UNIX OS will deliver a set of rich feature sets, stability, scalability, and portability.  The UNIX® registered trademark is used in conjunction with a certified UNIX OS such as HPE HP-UX, Oracle® Solaris, IBM AIX, and many other brands to showcase its conformance.[5]

The UNIX OS has been a foundation of innovation for more than 45 years and the Single UNIX Specification (the UNIX Standard) has been in place for 20 years. “UNIX continues to be at the heart of the IT industry as it is an important enabler of other technologies such as Cloud.  Oracle Solaris 11, a UNIX OS, is a complete, integrated, and open platform engineered for large-scale enterprise Cloud which is why Oracle customers continue to prefer Solaris under the hood,” said Chris Armes, Vice President, Oracle Solaris Engineering. Global 100 and Fortune 100 customers choose “UNIX inside” for always-on mission critical computing.  Apple chose “UNIX inside” as the basis of their flagship operating system – MAC OS X / El Capitan.[6]

By The Open Group

Learn more about UNIX innovation with the resources listed below and why so many companies have chosen “UNIX inside”.

© The Open Group 2016.

UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group.  HP-UX is a registered trademark of HPE.  AIX is a registered trademark of IBM.  Oracle Solaris is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation. El Capitan and Mac OS X are trademarks of Apple Inc.

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel#Intel_Inside

[2] The UNIX Evolution: An Innovative History Blog:  https://blog.opengroup.org/2016/02/23/the-unix-evolution-an-innovative-history/

[3] The Single UNIX Specification: http://www.unix.org/version4/overview.html

[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UL_%28safety_organization%29

[5] http://www.opengroup.org/openbrand/register/

[6] https://blog.opengroup.org/2015/10/02/mac-os-x-el-capitan-achieves-unix-certification/

 

 

 

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UNIX®: The “Always On” OS

By The Open Group

“High availability”, in its simplest definition, “is a characteristic of a system, which aims to ensure an agreed level of operational performance for a higher than normal period.”[1] For computer systems high availability generally focuses on the technologies that maximize system uptime by building in fault tolerance to overcome application, operating system, and hardware failures. Uptime is often measured by the “number of 9s” of availability percentage with, for example 99% (two nines), meaning a system is down for 3.65 days a year for planned and unplanned downtime. Based on the 2015-2016 ITIC Reliability Report, 99% was a common expectation in the mid-90s, but of the 71% companies surveyed, there is an expectation of 99.99% (four 9s or 52.56 minutes per year) and 25% expect 99.999% (five 9s or 5.26 minutes of downtime).[2] For mission critical environments, 99.999% is a great example of high availability operational performance expectation.

The ITIC Report enumerates numerous reasons for lack of achieving high availability (Exhibit 2 in the report) with human error being a major contributor (49%) and several others revolving aspects of the operating systems/software (security flows, bugs in OS, integration/interoperability issues, lack of documentation, lack of training, etc.).

The UNIX Standard is intended to address many of those issues impacting system reliability and uptime by providing a robust foundation including standard/apis to make it easier to build reliable and interpolatable software, common utilities/commands to make it easier to learn and administer, supported by robust documentation (1700+ manual pages), and a fair degree of quality assurance with more than 45,000 functional tests. Collectively, all of these features and technical documentation creates a great foundation within a UNIX operating system, which then can compliment the software and hardware solutions focused on improving high availability.

By The Open Group

The UNIX standard and the compliant operating systems are only one piece of the high availability story since it is part of the broader ecosystem that companies have come to rely on for their high availability solutions across the globe in key vertical industries such as telecom, banking, stock trading, Pharma/medical, infrastructure, etc. The five-9s can support multi-millions of dollars in revenue; save lives; deliver astronauts safely into space; deliver a robust foundation in global defense, and much more.

“A solid foundation is built upon standards, because standards provide assurance. Hewlett Packard Enterprise UNIX standards develop and deliver consistency. As we look at this, we talk about consistent APIs, consistent command line, and consistent integration between users and applications. A deterministic behavior is critical to high availability, because when it’s non-deterministic, things go wrong,” said Jeff Kyle, Director, Mission Critical Solutions, HPE. The UNIX standard is evolving to nurture the ecosystem and deliver what the market demands in these mission critical environments. When continuous computing for workloads is vital to the enterprise, the UNIX operating system is the best solution. The result is a proven infrastructure that accelerates business value and lowers your risk for the “always on” mission critical environments.[3]

Watch the UNIX: Journey of Innovation video to learn more about the UNIX value and importance to the market.

© The Open Group 2016

UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group. HP-UX is a registered trademark of HPE.

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_availability

[2] ITIC 2015 – 2016 Global Server Hardware, Server OS Reliability Report — http://www.idgconnect.com/view_abstract/33194/itic-2015-2016-global-server-hardware-server-os-reliability-report

[3] http://h17007.www1.hp.com/za/en/business-critical/operating-environments/hpux11i/index.aspx#.VvsPpT9ElhM

 

 

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O-ARMOR: UNIX® Armor

By The Open Group

Security is at the forefront of the IT industry today. Customers are looking for secure solutions that solve their IT challenges. Permissions and privacy are just a few of the security features that are highly sought after.

The latest UNIX® standard has evolved to meet industry demands with the addition of the Authorization Role Managed On RBAC, also known as O-ARMOR, an Open Group standard. While access controls through users, group IDs, and permissions have long been a requirement of the standard, the increasing demands of enterprise customers drove adoption with UNIX software and systems vendors. The days of using chmod 777 are no longer a viable way to share files, executable, or just giving every user root permissions. Moreover, even sharing the root password with administrators is not a good security practice.

Multi-user operating systems must innovate in today’s threat landscape. An IT governance and best practice necessitates giving the right people the right access at the right time. Look at the case of Edward Snowden, who had what most would say was unfettered access to data, which later was leaked in an embarrassing and damaging way . Enter role-based access control (RBAC), which is a policy neutral access control mechanism defined around roles and privileges with components such as role-permissions, user-role and role-role relationships. With RBAC, storage administrators can now have access to data and commands to do their job. On UNIX systems, Human Resources personnel can be given access to confidential information that general users would not.

The O-ARMOR standard defines a set of administrative roles consistent with generally accepted tasks assigned to system administrators. These roles can be customized to include the appropriate applications for each compliant UNIX system. The standard also provides an application programming interface (API) through which privileged applications can grant access to authorized users and roles. The strength of O-ARMOR is that the roll-based access controls can be consistently implemented and executed on systems running the same compliant operating system and even across heterogeneous operating systems that are compliant.

Being “armored” means better access control resulting in better security simplifying management of those access controls across the data center.

If you care about security, or ease of security management, ask your system vendor if their operating systems are UNIX certified with RBAC and complies with the O-ARMOR standard.

By The Open Group

Learn more about the UNIX operating system by watching The Journey of Innovation video.

 

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