Tag Archives: IT

Flexibility, Agility and Open Standards

By Jose M. Sanchez Knaack, IBM

Flexibility and agility are terms used almost interchangeably these days as attributes of IT architectures designed to cope with rapidly changing business requirements. Did you ever wonder if they are actually the same? Don’t you have the feeling that these terms remain abstract and without a concrete link to the design of an IT architecture?

This post searches to provide clear definitions for both flexibility and agility, and explain how both relate to the design of IT architectures that exploit open standards. A ‘real-life’ example will help to understand these concepts and render them relevant to the Enterprise Architect’s daily job.

First, here is some context on why flexibility and agility are increasingly important for businesses. Today, the average smart phone has more computing power than the original Apollo mission to the moon. We live in times of exponential change; the new technological revolution seems to be always around the corner and is safe to state that the trend will continue as nicely visualized in this infographic by TIME Magazine.

The average lifetime of a company in the S&P 500 has fallen by 80 percent since 1937. In other words, companies need to adapt fast to capitalize on business opportunities created by new technologies at the price of loosing their leadership position.

Thus, flexibility and agility have become ever present business goals that need to be supported by the underlying IT architecture. But, what is the precise meaning of these two terms? The online Merriam-Webster dictionary offers the following definitions:

Flexible: characterized by a ready capability to adapt to new, different, or changing requirements.

Agile: marked by ready ability to move with quick easy grace.

To understand how these terms relate to IT architecture, let us explore an example based on an Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) scenario.

An ESB can be seen as the foundation for a flexible IT architecture allowing companies to integrate applications (processes) written in different programming languages and running on different platforms within and outside the corporate firewall.

ESB products are normally equipped with a set of pre-built adapters that allow integrating 70-80 percent of applications ‘out-of-the-box’, without additional programming efforts. For the remaining 20-30 percent of integration requirements, it is possible to develop custom adapters so that any application can be integrated with any other if required.

In other words, an ESB covers requirements regarding integration flexibility, that is, it can cope with changing requirements in terms of integrating additional applications via adapters, ‘out-of-the-box’ or custom built. How does this integration flexibility correlate to integration agility?

Let’s think of a scenario where the IT team has been requested to integrate an old manufacturing application with a new business partner. The integration needs to be ready within one month; otherwise the targeted business opportunity will not apply anymore.

The picture below shows the underlying IT architecture for this integration scenario.

jose diagram

Although the ESB is able to integrate the old manufacturing application, it requires an adapter to be custom developed since the application does not support any of the communication protocols covered by the pre-built adapters. To custom develop, test and deploy an adapter in a corporate environment is likely going to take longer that a month and the business opportunity will be lost because the IT architecture was not agile enough.

This is the subtle difference between flexible and agile.

Notice that if the manufacturing application had been able to communicate via open standards, the corresponding pre-built adapter would have significantly shortened the time required to integrate this application. Applications that do not support open standards still exist in corporate IT landscapes, like the above scenario illustrates. Thus, the importance of incorporating open standards when road mapping your IT architecture.

The key takeaway is that your architecture principles need to favor information technology built on open standards, and for that, you can leverage The Open Group Architecture Principle 20 on Interoperability.

Name Interoperability
Statement Software and hardware should conform to defined standards that promote interoperability for data, applications, and technology.

In summary, the accelerating pace of change requires corporate IT architectures to support the business goals of flexibility and agility. Establishing architecture principles that favor open standards as part of your architecture governance framework is one proven approach (although not the only one) to road map your IT architecture in the pursuit of resiliency.

linkedin - CopyJose M. Sanchez Knaack is Senior Manager with IBM Global Business Services in Switzerland. Mr. Sanchez Knaack professional background covers business aligned IT architecture strategy and complex system integration at global technology enabled transformation initiatives.

 

 

 

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Data Governance: A Fundamental Aspect of IT

By E.G. Nadhan, HP

In an earlier post, I had explained how you can build upon SOA governance to realize Cloud governance.  But underlying both paradigms is a fundamental aspect that we have been dealing with ever since the dawn of IT—and that’s the data itself.

In fact, IT used to be referred to as “data processing.” Despite the continuing evolution of IT through various platforms, technologies, architectures and tools, at the end of the day IT is still processing data. However, the data has taken multiple shapes and forms—both structured and unstructured. And Cloud Computing has opened up opportunities to process and store structured and unstructured data. There has been a need for data governance since the day data processing was born, and today, it’s taken on a whole new dimension.

“It’s the economy, stupid,” was a campaign slogan, coined to win a critical election in the United States in 1992. Today, the campaign slogan for governance in the land of IT should be, “It’s the data, stupid!”

Let us challenge ourselves with a few questions. Consider them the what, why, when, where, who and how of data governance.

What is data governance? It is the mechanism by which we ensure that the right corporate data is available to the right people, at the right time, in the right format, with the right context, through the right channels.

Why is data governance needed? The Cloud, social networking and user-owned devices (BYOD) have acted as catalysts, triggering an unprecedented growth in recent years. We need to control and understand the data we are dealing with in order to process it effectively and securely.

When should data governance be exercised? Well, when shouldn’t it be? Data governance kicks in at the source, where the data enters the enterprise. It continues across the information lifecycle, as data is processed and consumed to address business needs. And it is also essential when data is archived and/or purged.

Where does data governance apply? It applies to all business units and across all processes. Data governance has a critical role to play at the point of storage—the final checkpoint before it is stored as “golden” in a database. Data Governance also applies across all layers of the architecture:

  • Presentation layer where the data enters the enterprise
  • Business logic layer where the business rules are applied to the data
  • Integration layer where data is routed
  • Storage layer where data finds its home

Who does data governance apply to? It applies to all business leaders, consumers, generators and administrators of data. It is a good idea to identify stewards for the ownership of key data domains. Stewards must ensure that their data domains abide by the enterprise architectural principles.  Stewards should continuously analyze the impact of various business events to their domains.

How is data governance applied? Data governance must be exercised at the enterprise level with federated governance to individual business units and data domains. It should be proactively exercised when a new process, application, repository or interface is introduced.  Existing data is likely to be impacted.  In the absence of effective data governance, data is likely to be duplicated, either by chance or by choice.

In our data universe, “informationalization” yields valuable intelligence that enables effective decision-making and analysis. However, even having the best people, process and technology is not going to yield the desired outcomes if the underlying data is suspect.

How about you? How is the data in your enterprise? What governance measures do you have in place? I would like to know.

A version of this blog post was originally published on HP’s Journey through Enterprise IT Services blog.

NadhanHP Distinguished Technologist and Cloud Advisor, E.G.Nadhan has more than 25 years of experience in the IT industry across the complete spectrum of selling, delivering and managing enterprise level solutions for HP customers. He is the founding co-chair for The Open Group SOCCI project, and is also the founding co-chair for the Open Group Cloud Computing Governance project. Connect with Nadhan on: Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and Journey Blog.

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2013 Open Group Predictions, Vol. 1

By The Open Group

A big thank you to all of our members and staff who have made 2012 another great year for The Open Group. There were many notable achievements this year, including the release of ArchiMate 2.0, the launch of the Future Airborne Capability Environment (FACE™) Technical Standard and the publication of the SOA Reference Architecture (SOA RA) and the Service-Oriented Cloud Computing Infrastructure Framework (SOCCI).

As we wrap up 2012, we couldn’t help but look towards what is to come in 2013 for The Open Group and the industries we‘re a part of. Without further ado, here they are:

Big Data
By Dave Lounsbury, Chief Technical Officer

Big Data is on top of everyone’s mind these days. Consumerization, mobile smart devices, and expanding retail and sensor networks are generating massive amounts of data on behavior, environment, location, buying patterns – etc. – producing what is being called “Big Data”. In addition, as the use of personal devices and social networks continue to gain popularity so does the expectation to have access to such data and the computational power to use it anytime, anywhere. Organizations will turn to IT to restructure its services so it meets the growing expectation of control and access to data.

Organizations must embrace Big Data to drive their decision-making and to provide the optimal service mix services to customers. Big Data is becoming so big that the big challenge is how to use it to make timely decisions. IT naturally focuses on collecting data so Big Data itself is not an issue.. To allow humans to keep on top of this flood of data, industry will need to move away from programming computers for storing and processing data to teaching computers how to assess large amounts of uncorrelated data and draw inferences from this data on their own. We also need to start thinking about the skills that people need in the IT world to not only handle Big Data, but to make it actionable. Do we need “Data Architects” and if so, what would their role be?

In 2013, we will see the beginning of the Intellectual Computing era. IT will play an essential role in this new era and will need to help enterprises look at uncorrelated data to find the answer.

Security

By Jim Hietala, Vice President of Security

As 2012 comes to a close, some of the big developments in security over the past year include:

  • Continuation of hacktivism attacks.
  • Increase of significant and persistent threats targeting government and large enterprises. The notable U.S. National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace started to make progress in the second half of the year in terms of industry and government movement to address fundamental security issues.
  • Security breaches were discovered by third parties, where the organizations affected had no idea that they were breached. Data from the 2012 Verizon report suggests that 92 percent of companies breached were notified by a third party.
  • Acknowledgement from senior U.S. cybersecurity professionals that organizations fall into two groups: those that know they’ve been penetrated, and those that have been penetrated, but don’t yet know it.

In 2013, we’ll no doubt see more of the same on the attack front, plus increased focus on mobile attack vectors. We’ll also see more focus on detective security controls, reflecting greater awareness of the threat and on the reality that many large organizations have already been penetrated, and therefore responding appropriately requires far more attention on detection and incident response.

We’ll also likely see the U.S. move forward with cybersecurity guidance from the executive branch, in the form of a Presidential directive. New national cybersecurity legislation seemed to come close to happening in 2012, and when it failed to become a reality, there were many indications that the administration would make something happen by executive order.

Enterprise Architecture

By Leonard Fehskens, Vice President of Skills and Capabilities

Preparatory to my looking back at 2012 and forward to 2013, I reviewed what I wrote last year about 2011 and 2012.

Probably the most significant thing from my perspective is that so little has changed. In fact, I think in many respects the confusion about what Enterprise Architecture (EA) and Business Architecture are about has gotten worse.

The stress within the EA community as both the demands being placed on it and the diversity of opinion within it increase continues to grow.  This year, I saw a lot more concern about the value proposition for EA, but not a lot of (read “almost no”) convergence on what that value proposition is.

Last year I wrote “As I expected at this time last year, the conventional wisdom about Enterprise Architecture continues to spin its wheels.”  No need to change a word of that. What little progress at the leading edge was made in 2011 seems to have had no effect in 2012. I think this is largely a consequence of the dust thrown in the eyes of the community by the ascendance of the concept of “Business Architecture,” which is still struggling to define itself.  Business Architecture seems to me to have supplanted last year’s infatuation with “enterprise transformation” as the means of compensating for the EA community’s entrenched IT-centric perspective.

I think this trend and the quest for a value proposition are symptomatic of the same thing — the urgent need for Enterprise Architecture to make its case to its stakeholder community, especially to the people who are paying the bills. Something I saw in 2011 that became almost epidemic in 2012 is conflation — the inclusion under the Enterprise Architecture umbrella of nearly anything with the slightest taste of “business” to it. This has had the unfortunate effect of further obscuring the unique contribution of Enterprise Architecture, which is to bring architectural thinking to bear on the design of human enterprise.

So, while I’m not quite mired in the slough of despond, I am discouraged by the community’s inability to advance the state of the art. In a private communication to some colleagues I wrote, “the conventional wisdom on EA is at about the same state of maturity as 14th century cosmology. It is obvious to even the most casual observer that the earth is both flat and the center of the universe. We debate what happens when you fall off the edge of the Earth, and is the flat earth carried on the back of a turtle or an elephant?  Does the walking of the turtle or elephant rotate the crystalline sphere of the heavens, or does the rotation of the sphere require the turtlephant to walk to keep the earth level?  These are obviously the questions we need to answer.”

Cloud

By Chris Harding, Director of Interoperability

2012 has seen the establishment of Cloud Computing as a mainstream resource for enterprise architects and the emergence of Big Data as the latest hot topic, likely to be mainstream for the future. Meanwhile, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) has kept its position as an architectural style of choice for delivering distributed solutions, and the move to ever more powerful mobile devices continues. These trends have been reflected in the activities of our Cloud Computing Work Group and in the continuing support by members of our SOA work.

The use of Cloud, Mobile Computing, and Big Data to deliver on-line systems that are available anywhere at any time is setting a new norm for customer expectations. In 2013, we will see the development of Enterprise Architecture practice to ensure the consistent delivery of these systems by IT professionals, and to support the evolution of creative new computing solutions.

IT systems are there to enable the business to operate more effectively. Customers expect constant on-line access through mobile and other devices. Business organizations work better when they focus on their core capabilities, and let external service providers take care of the rest. On-line data is a huge resource, so far largely untapped. Distributed, Cloud-enabled systems, using Big Data, and architected on service-oriented principles, are the best enablers of effective business operations. There will be a convergence of SOA, Mobility, Cloud Computing, and Big Data as they are seen from the overall perspective of the enterprise architect.

Within The Open Group, the SOA and Cloud Work Groups will continue their individual work, and will collaborate with other forums and work groups, and with outside organizations, to foster the convergence of IT disciplines for distributed computing.

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The Cloud Infrastructure for Next-Generation – Big Data Computing

By Pethuru Raj, Wipro Consulting Services

There are several remarkable trends in the IT field. Business-automation and acceleration technologies, open and industry-strength standards, adaptive architectures, facilitating frameworks, best practices for software engineering, converged platforms, Cloud infrastructures, lean processes, design patterns, enabling tools, and key implementation guidelines are flourishing for simplified IT, which is more tuned for business and customer-centricity. Businesses are consciously striving to achieve strategic transformations on their business operation model, the information captured, catalogued and stocked, and for sharply enhancing the user-experience in the extremely connected world.

The device ecosystem is growing faster with the ready availability of gadgets for personal and professional use. The application landscape is on the climb with the addition of Cloud, social, mobile and sensor services. Then, there are introspective middleware solutions built to integrate disparate, distributed and decentralised systems and data sources. Amongst the most captivating technologies, the Cloud technology stands out.

Clouds as the next-generation IT Infrastructure

As we all know, the Cloud paradigm has laid the foundation for fulfilling the grand vision of IT infrastructure optimization through a seamless synchronization of several enterprise-scale and mission-critical technologies. This pioneering evolution has impacted business as well as IT. Clouds are being positioned as the highly consolidated, virtualized, and shared and automated IT environments for hosting and compactly delivering a galaxy of diverse IT resources and business services for anyone, anytime and anywhere through any device and service. That is, all kinds of services, applications and data are now being modernized and migrated to Cloud platforms and infrastructures in order to reap all the Cloud’s benefits to end users and businesses.

Cloud Computing has become a versatile IT phenomenon and has inspired many to come out with a number of -centric services, products and platforms that facilitate scores of rich applications. There have also been a variety of generic and specific innovations in the form of best practices   for managing the rising complexity of IT and enhancing IT agility, autonomy and affordability.

All of the improvisations happening in the IT landscape with the adaption of Cloud are helping worldwide business enterprises to achieve the venerable mission of “achieving more with less.” Thus, Cloud as the core infrastructure and driver behind the business changes taking place today lead to   a brighter future for all businesses.

The Eruption of Big Data Computing

The most noteworthy trend today is the data explosion. As there are more machines and sensors deployed and managed in our everyday environments, machine-generated data has become much larger than the man-generated data. Furthermore, the data structure varies from non-structured to semi-structured and structured style, and there are pressures to unearth fresh database systems, such as Cloud-based NoSQL databases in order to swiftly capture, store, access and retrieve large-scale and multi-structured data.

Data velocity is another critical factor to be considered in order to extract actionable insights and to contemplate the next-course of actions. There are Cloud integration appliances and solutions in order to effortlessly integrate date across Clouds – private, public and hybrid.

Besides Big Data storage and management, Big Data analytics has become increasingly important as data across Cloud, social, mobile and enterprise spaces needs to be identified and aggregated, subjected to data mining, processing and analysis tasks through well-defined policies in order to benefit any organization. The Hadoop framework, commodity hardware and specific data appliances are the prominent methods being used to accommodate terabytes and even petabytes of incongruent data, empowering executives, entrepreneurs and engineers to make informed decisions with actionable data. The data architecture for new-generation enterprises will go through a tectonic shift, and leading market watchers predict that Big Data management and intelligence will become common and led to the demise of conventional data management solutions.

Clouds are set to become the optimised, adaptive and real-time infrastructure for Big Data storage, management and analysis. I have authored a book with the title, “Cloud Enterprise Architecture.” I have written extensively about the positive impacts of the transformative and disruptive Cloud technology on enterprises. I have also written about the futuristic enterprise data architecture with the maturity and stability of the Cloud paradigm.  In a nutshell, with Cloud in connivance with mobile, social and analytic technologies, the aspects such as business acceleration, automation and augmentation are bound to see a drastic and decisive growth.

Dr. Pethuru Raj is an enterprise architecture (EA) consultant in Wipro Technologies, Bangalore, India. He has been providing technology advisory service for worldwide companies for smoothly enabling them to transition into smarter organizations. He has been writing book chapters for a number of technology books (BPM, SOA, Cloud Computing, enterprise architecture, and Big Data) being edited by internationally acclaimed professors and professionals. He has authored a solo book with the title “Cloud Enterprise Architecture” through the CRC Press, USA. 

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Build Upon SOA Governance to Realize Cloud Governance

By E.G. Nadhan, HP

The Open Group SOA Governance Framework just became an International Standard available to government and enterprises worldwide. At the same time, I read an insightful post by ZDNet Blogger, Joe McKendrick who states that Cloud and automation drive new growth in SOA governance market. I have always maintained that the fundamentals of Cloud Computing are based upon SOA principles. This brings up the next natural question: Where are we with Cloud Governance?

I co-chair the Open Group project for defining the Cloud Governance framework. Fundamentally, the Cloud Governance framework builds upon The Open Group SOA Governance Framework and provides additional context for Cloud Governance in relation to other governance standards in the industry. We are with Cloud Governance today where we were with SOA Governance a few years back when The Open Group started on the SOA Governance framework project.

McKendrick goes on to say that the tools and methodologies built and stabilized over the past few years for SOA projects are seeing renewed life as enterprises move to the Cloud model. In McKendrick’s words, “it is just a matter of getting the word out.” That may be the case for the SOA governance market. But, is that so for Cloud Governance?

When it comes to Cloud Governance, it is more than just getting the word out. We must make progress in the following areas for Cloud Governance to become real:

  • Sustained adoption. Enterprises must continuously adopt cloud based services balancing it with outsourcing alternatives. This will give more visibility to the real-life use cases where Cloud Governance can be exercised to validate and refine the enabling set of governance models.
  • Framework Definition. Finally, Cloud Governance needs a standard framework to facilitate its adoption. Just like the SOA Governance Framework, the definition of a standard for the Cloud Governance Framework as well as the supporting reference models will pave the way for the consistent adoption of Cloud Governance.

Once these progressions are made, Cloud Governance will be positioned like SOA Governance—and it will then be just a “matter of getting the word out.”

A version of this blog post originally appeared on the Journey through Enterprise IT Services Blog.

HP Distinguished Technologist and Cloud Advisor, E.G.Nadhan has over 25 years of experience in the IT industry across the complete spectrum of selling, delivering and managing enterprise level solutions for HP customers. He is the founding co-chair for The Open Group SOCCI project and is also the founding co-chair for the Open Group Cloud Computing Governance project. Connect with Nadhan on: Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin and Journey Blog.

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RECAP: The Open Group Brazil Conference – May 24, 2012

By Isabela Abreu, The Open Group

Under an autumn Brazilian sky, The Open Group held its first regional event in São Paulo, Brazil, and it turned out to be a great success. More than 150 people attended the conference – including Open Group platinum members (CapGemini, HP, IBM and Oracle), the Brazil chapter of the Association of Enterprise Architecture (AEA), and Brazilian organizations (Daryus, Sensedia) – displaying a robust interest for Enterprise Architecture (EA) within the world’s sixth largest economy. The Open Group also introduced its mission, vision and values to the marketplace – a working model not very familiar to the Brazilian environment.

After the 10 hour, one-day event, I’m pleased to say that The Open Group’s first formal introduction to Brazil was well received, and the organization’s mission was immediately understood!

Introduction to Brazil

The event started with a brief introduction of The Open Group by myself, Isabela Abreu, Open Group country manager of Brazil, and was followed by an impressive presentation by Allen Brown, CEO of The Open Group, on how enterprise architects hold the power to change an organization’s future, and stay ahead of competitors, by using open standards that drive business transformation.

The conference aimed to provide an overview of trending topics, such as business transformation, EA, TOGAF®, Cloud Computing, SOA and Information Security. The presentations focused on case studies, including one by Marcelo Sávio of IBM that showed how the organization has evolved through the use of EA Governance; and one by Roberto Soria of Oracle that provided an introduction to SOA Governance.

Enterprise Architecture

Moving on to architecture, Roberto Severo, president of the AEA in Brazil, pointed out why architects must join the association to transform the Brazil EA community into a strong and ethical tool for transforming EA. He also demonstrated how to align tactical decisions to strategic objectives using Cloud Computing. Then Cecilio Fraguas of CPM Braxis CapGemini provided an introduction to TOGAF®; and Courtnay Guimarães of Instisys comically evinced that although it is sometimes difficult to apply, EA is a competitive tool for investment banks

Security

On the security front, Rodrigo Antão of Apura showed the audience that our enemies know us, but we don’t know them, in a larger discussion about counter-intelligence and cybersecurity; he indicated that architects are wrong when tend to believe EA has nothing to do with Information Security. In his session titled, “OSIMM: How to Measure Success with SOA and Design the Roadmap,” Luís Moraes of Sensedia provided a good overview for architects and explained how to measure success with SOA and design roadmaps with OSIMM - a maturity model of integration services soon to become an ISO standard, based on SOA and developed by The Open Group. Finally, Alberto Favero of Ernst & Young presented the findings of the Ernst & Young 2011 Global Information Security Survey, closing the event.

Aside from the competitive raffle, the real highlight of the event happened at lunch when I noticed the networking between conference attendees. I can testify that the Brazilian EA community actively ideas, in the spirit of The Open Group!

By the end of the day, everybody returned home with new ideas and new friends. I received many inquiries on how to keep the community engaged after the conference, and I promise to keep activities up and running here, in Brazil.

Stay tuned, as we plan sending on a survey to conference attendees, as well the link to all of the presentations. Thanks to everyone who made the conference a great success!

Isabela Abreu is The Open Group country manager for Brazil. She is a member of AEA Brazil and has participated in the translation of the glossary of TOGAF® 9.1, ISO/IEC 20000:1 and ISO/IEC 20000:5 and ITIL V3 to Portuguese. Abreu has worked for itSMF Brazil, EXIN Brazil – Examination Institute for Information Science, and PATH ITTS Consultancy, and is a graduate of São Paulo University.

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2012 Open Group Predictions, Vol. 1

By The Open Group

Foreword

By Allen Brown, CEO

2011 was a big year for The Open Group, thanks to the efforts of our members and our staff – you all deserve a very big thank you. There have been so many big achievements, that to list them all here would mean we would never get to our predictions. Significantly though, The Open Group continues to grow and this year the number of enterprise members passed the 400 mark which means that around 30,000 people are involved, some more so than others, from all over the world.

Making predictions is always risky but we thought it might be fun anyway. Here are three trends that will wield great influence on IT in 2012 and beyond:

  • This year we experienced the consumerization of IT accelerating the pace of change for the enterprise at an astonishing rate as business users embraced new technologies that transformed their organizations. As this trend continues in 2012, the enterprise architect will play a critical role in supporting this change and enabling the business to realize their goals.
  • Enterprise architecture will continue its maturity in becoming a recognized profession. As the profession matures, employers of enterprise architects and other IT professionals, for that matter, will increasingly look for industry recognized certifications.
  • As globalization continues, security and compliance will be increasing issues for companies delivering products or services and there will be a growing spotlight on what might be inside IT products. Vendors will be expected to warrant that the products they purchase and integrate into their own products come from a trusted source and that their own processes can be trusted in order not to introduce potential threats to their customers. At the same time, customers will be increasingly sensitive to the security and dependability of their IT assets. To address this situation, security will continue to be designed in from the outset and be tightly coupled with enterprise architecture.

In addition to my predictions, Other Open Group staff members also wanted to share their predictions for 2012 with you:

Security

By Jim Hietala, VP of Security

Cloud security in 2012 becomes all about point solutions to address specific security pain points. Customers are realizing that to achieve an acceptable level of security, whether for IaaS, SaaS, or PaaS, they need to apply controls in addition to the native platform controls from the Cloud service provider. In 2012, this will manifest as early Cloud security technologies target specific and narrow security functionality gaps. Specific areas where we see this playing out include data encryption, data loss prevention, identity and access management, and others.

Cloud

By Chris Harding, Director of Interoperability

There is a major trend towards shared computing resources that are “on the Cloud” – accessed by increasingly powerful and mobile personal computing devices but decoupled from the users.

This may bring some much-needed economic growth in 2012, but history shows that real growth can only come from markets based on standards. Cloud portability and interoperability standards will enable development of re-usable components as commodity items, but the need for them is not yet appreciated. And, even if the vendors wanted these standards for Cloud Computing, they do not yet have the experience to create good ones.  But, by the end of the year, we should understand Cloud Computing better and will perhaps have made a start on the standardization that will lead to growth in the years ahead.

Here are some more Cloud predictions from my colleagues in The Open Group Cloud Work Group: http://blog.opengroup.org/2011/12/19/cloud-computing-predictions-for-2012/

Business Architecture

By Steve Philp, Professional Certification

There are a number of areas for 2012 where Business Architects will be called upon to engage in transforming the business and applying technologies such as Cloud Computing, social networking and big data. Therefore, the need to have competent Business Architects is greater than ever. This year organizations have been recruiting and developing Business Architects and the profession as a whole is now starting to take shape. But how do you establish who is a practicing Business Architect?

In response to requests from our membership, next year The Open Group will incorporate a Business Architecture stream into The Open Group Certified Architect (Open CA) program. There has already been significant interest in this stream from both organizations and practitioners alike. This is because Open CA is a skills and experience based program that recognizes, at different levels, those individuals who are performing in a Business Architecture role. I believe this initiative will further help to develop the profession over the next few years and especially in 2012.

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