Tag Archives: Internet

Thinking About Big Data

By Dave Lounsbury, The Open Group

“We can not solve our problems with the same level of thinking that created them.”

- Albert Einstein

The growing consumerization of technology and convergence of technologies such as the “Internet of Things”, social networks and mobile devices are causing big changes for enterprises and the marketplace. They are also generating massive amounts of data related to behavior, environment, location, buying patterns and more.

Having massive amounts of data readily available is invaluable. More data means greater insight, which leads to more informed decision-making. So far, we are keeping ahead of this data by smarter analytics and improving the way we handle this data. The question is, how long can we keep up? The rate of data production is increasing; as an example, an IDC report[1] predicts that the production of data will increase 50X in the coming decade. To magnify this problem, there’s an accompanying explosion of data about the data – cataloging information, metadata, and the results of analytics are all data in themselves. At the same time, data scientists and engineers who can deal with such data are already a scarce commodity, and the number of such people is expected to grow only by 1.5X in the same period.

It isn’t hard to draw the curve. Turning data into actionable insight is going to be a challenge – data flow is accelerating at a faster rate than the available humans can absorb, and our databases and data analytic systems can only help so much.

Markets never leave gaps like this unfilled, and because of this we should expect to see a fundamental shift in the IT tools we use to deal with the growing tide of data. In order to solve the challenges of managing data with the volume, variety and velocities we expect, we will need to teach machines to do more of the analysis for us and help to make the best use of scarce human talents.

The Study of Machine Learning

Machine Learning, sometimes called “cognitive computing”[2] or “intelligent computing”, looks at the study of building computers with the capability to learn and perform tasks based on experience. Experience in this context includes looking at vast data sets, using multiple “senses” or types of media, recognizing patterns from past history or precedent, and extrapolating this information to reason about the problem at hand. An example of machine learning that is currently underway in the healthcare sector is medical decision aids that learn to predict therapies or to help with patient management, based on correlating a vast body of medical and drug experience data with the information about the patients under treatment

A well-known example of this is Watson, a machine learning system IBM unveiled a few years ago. While Watson is best known for winning Jeopardy, that was just the beginning. IBM has since built six Watsons to assist with their primary objective: to help health care professionals find answers to complex medical questions and help with patient management[3]. The sophistication of Watson is the reaction of all this data action that is going on. Watson of course isn’t the only example in this field, with others ranging from Apple’s Siri intelligent voice-operated assistant to DARPA’s SyNAPSE program[4].

Evolution of the Technological Landscape

As the consumerization of technology continues to grow and converge, our way of constructing business models and systems need to evolve as well. We need to let data drive the business process, and incorporate intelligent machines like Watson into our infrastructure to help us turn data into actionable results.

There is an opportunity for information technology and companies to help drive this forward. However, in order for us to properly teach computers how to learn, we first need to understand the environments in which they will be asked to learn in – Cloud, Big Data, etc. Ultimately, though, any full consideration of these problems will require a look at how machine learning can help us make decisions – machine learning systems may be the real platform in these areas.

The Open Group is already laying the foundation to help organizations take advantage of these convergent technologies with its new forum, Platform 3.0. The forum brings together a community of industry thought leaders to analyze the use of Cloud, Social, Mobile computing and Big Data, and describe the business benefits that enterprises can gain from them. We’ll also be looking at trends like these at our Philadelphia conference this summer.  Please join us in the discussion.


2 Comments

Filed under Cloud, Cloud/SOA, Data management, Enterprise Architecture

Welcome to Platform 3.0

By Dave Lounsbury, The Open Group

The space around us is forever changing.

As I write now, the planet’s molten core is in motion far beneath my feet, and way above my head, our atmosphere and the universe are in constant flux too.

Man also makes his own changes as well. Innovation in technology and business constantly create new ways to work together and create economic value.

Over the past few years, we have witnessed the birth, evolution and use of a number of such changes, each of which has the potential to fundamentally change the way we engage with one another. These include: Mobile, Social (both Social Networks and Social Enterprise), Big Data, the Internet of Things, Cloud Computing as well as devices and application architectures.

Now however, these once disparate forces are converging – united by the growing Consumerization of Technology and the resulting evolution in user behavior – to create new business models and system designs.

You can see evidence of this convergence of trends in the following key architectural shifts:

  • Exponential growth of data inside and outside organizations converging with end point usage in mobile devices, analytics, embedded technology and Cloud hosted environments
  • Speed of technology and business innovation is rapidly changing the focus from asset ownership to the usage of services, and the predication of more agile architecture models to be able to adapt to new technology change and offerings
  • New value networks resulting from the interaction and growth of the Internet of Things and multi-devices and connectivity targeting specific vertical industry sector needs
  • Performance and security implications involving cross technology platforms , cache and bandwidth strategies, existing across federated environments
  • Social behavior and market channel changes resulting in multiple ways to search and select IT and business services
  • Cross device and user-centric driven service design and mainstream use of online marketplace platforms for a growing range of services

The analyst community was the first to recognize and define this evolution in the technological landscape which we are calling Platform 3.0.

At Gartner’s Symposium conference, the keynote touched on the emergence of what it called a ‘Nexus of Forces,’ and warning that it would soon render existing Business Architectures “obsolete.”

However, for those organizations who could get it right, Gartner called the Nexus a “key differentiator of business and technology management” and recommended that “strategizing on how to take advantage of the Nexus should be a top priority for companies around the world.”[i]

Similarly, according to IDC Chief Analyst, Frank Gens, “Vendors’ ability (or inability) to compete on the 3rd Platform [Platform 3.0] right now — even at the risk of cannibalizing their own 2nd Platform franchises — will reorder leadership ranks within the IT market and, ultimately, every industry that uses IT.”[ii]

Of course, while organizations will be looking to make use of Platform 3.0 to create innovative new products and services, this will not be an easy transition for many. Significantly, there will be architectural issues and structural considerations to consider when using and combining these convergent technologies which will need to be overcome. Accomplishing this will in turn require cooperation among suppliers and users of these products and services.

That is why we’re excited to announce the formation of a new – as yet unnamed – forum, specifically designed to advance The Open Group vision of Boundaryless Information Flow™ by helping enterprises to take advantage of these convergent technologies. This will be accomplished by identifying a set of new platform capabilities, and architecting and standardizing an IT platform by which enterprises can reap the business benefits of Platform 3.0. It is our intention that these capabilities will enable enterprises to:

  • Process data “in the Cloud”
  • Integrate mobile devices with enterprise computing
  • Incorporate new sources of data, including social media and sensors in the Internet of Things
  • Manage and share data that has high volume, velocity, variety and distribution
  • Turn the data into usable information through correlation, fusion, analysis and visualization

The forum will bring together a community of industry experts and thought leaders whose purpose it will be to meet these goals, initiate and manage programs to support them, and promote the results. Owing to the nature of the forum it is expected that this forum will also leverage work underway in this area by The Open Group’s existing Cloud Work Group, and would coordinate with other forums for specific overlapping or cross-cutting activities.

Looking ahead, the first deliverables will analyze the use of Cloud, Social, Mobile Computing and Big Data, and describe the business benefits that enterprises can gain from them. The forum will then proceed to describe the new IT platform in the light of this analysis.

If this area is as exciting and important to you and your organization as it is to us, please join us in the discussion. We will use this blog and other communication channels of The Open Group to let you know how you can participate, and we’d of course welcome your comments and thoughts on this idea.

21 Comments

Filed under Enterprise Architecture, Professional Development

Key Concepts Underpinning Identity Management

By Ian Dobson, The Open Group

Having trust in the true Identity of who and what we connect with in our global online world is vital if we are to have confidence in going online to buy and sell goods, as well as sharing any confidential or private information.  Today, the lack of trust in online Identity forces organizations to set up their own identity management systems, dishing out their own usernames and passwords/PINs for us.  The result is that we end up having to remember (or write and keep in a secret place) typically well over 50 different online identities, which poses a large problem since our online identities are stored by many organizations in many places that are attractive targets for identity thieves.

Online identity is important to all users of computing devices.  Today, our mobile phones are powerful computers.  There are so many mobile apps available that phones are no longer primarily used to make phone calls.  The Internet connects us to a global online world, so we need a global online identity ecosystem that’s robust enough to give us the confidence we need to feel safe and secure online.  Just like credit cards and passports, we need to aim for an online identity ecosystem that has a high-enough level of trust for it to work worldwide.

Of course, this is not easy, as identity is a complex subject.  Online identity experts have been working on trusted identities for many years now, but no acceptable identity ecosystem solution has emerged yet.  There are masses of publications written on the subject by and for technical experts. Two significant ones addressing design principles for online identity are Kim Cameron’s “Laws of Identity“, and the Jericho Forum’s Identity Commandments.

However, these design principles are written for technical experts.  Online identity is a multi-million dollar industry, so why is it so important to non-techie users of online services?

What’s In It For Me?
Why should I care?
Who else has a stake in this?
What’s the business case?
Why should I control my own identity?
Where does privacy come in?
What’s the problem with current solutions?
Why do identity schemes fail?
What key issues should I look for?
How might a practical scheme work?

This is where the Jericho Forum® took a lead.   They recognized the need to provide plain-language answers to these questions and more, so that end-users can appreciate the key issues that make online identity important to them and demand the industry provide identity solutions that make then safe and secure wherever they are in the world.  In August 2012, we published a set of five 4-minute “Identity Key Concepts” videos explaining in a non-techie way why trusted online identity is so important, and what key requirements are needed to create a trustworthy online identity ecosystem.

The Jericho Forum has now followed up by building on the key concepts explained in these five videos in our “Identity Commandments: Key Concepts” guide. This guide fills in the gaps that couldn’t be included in the videos and further explains why supporting practical initiatives aimed at developing a trusted global identity ecosystem is so important to everyone.

Here are links to other relevant identity publications:

Laws of Identity: http://www.identityblog.com/?p=354

Identity Commandments: https://www2.opengroup.org/ogsys/jsp/publications/PublicationDetails.jsp?publicationid=12677

Identity Key Concepts videos: https://collaboration.opengroup.org/jericho/?gpid=326

Identity Commandments: Key Concepts: https://www2.opengroup.org/ogsys/jsp/publications/PublicationDetails.jsp?publicationid=12724

Ian Dobson is the director of the Security Forum and the Jericho Forum for The Open Group, coordinating and facilitating the members to achieve their goals in our challenging information security world.  In the Security Forum, his focus is on supporting development of open standards and guides on security architectures and management of risk and security, while in the Jericho Forum he works with members to anticipate the requirements for the security solutions we will need in future.

Comments Off

Filed under Identity Management

#ogChat Summary – Walled Garden Networks

By Patty Donovan, The Open Group

With hundreds of tweets flying at break-neck pace, yesterday’s #ogChat saw a very spirited discussion on the Internet’s movement toward a walled garden model. In case you missed the conversation, you’re in luck! Here’s a recap of yesterday’s #ogChat.

The full list of participants included:

Here is a high-level a snapshot of yesterday’s #ogChat:

Q1 In the context of #WWW, why has there been a shift from the open Internet to portals, apps and walled environs? #ogChat

Participants generally agreed that the impetus behind the walled garden trend was led by two factors: companies and developers wanting more control, and a desire by users to feel “safer.”

  • @charleneli: Q1 Peeps & developers like order, structure, certainty. Control can provide that. But too much and they leave. #ogChat.
  • @Technodad: User info & contributions are raw material of walled sites-”If you’re not paying for the service, the product being sold is you”. #ogChat
  • @AlanWebber #ogChat Q1 – People feel safer inside the “Walls” but don’t realize what they are loosing

Q2 How has this trend affected privacy/control? Do users have enough control over their IDs/content within #walledgarden networks? #ogChat

This was a hot topic as participants debated the tradeoffs between great content and privacy controls. Questions of where data was used and leaked to also emerged, as walled gardens are known to have backdoors.

  • @AlanWebber: But do people understand what they are giving up inside the walls? #ogChat
  • @TheTonyBradley: Q2 — Yes and no. Users have more control than they’re aware of, but for many its too complex and cumbersome to manage properly. #ogchat
  • @jim_hietala: #ogChat Q2 privacy and control trade offs need to be made more obvious, visible
  • @zdFYRashid: Q2 users assume that #walledgarden means nothing leaves, so they think privacy is implied. They don’t realize that isn’t the case #ogchat
  • @JohnFontana: Q2 Notion is wall and gate is at the front of garden where users enter. It’s the back that is open and leaking their data #ogchat
  • @subreyes94: #ogchat .@DanaGardner More walls coming down through integration. FB and Twitter are becoming de facto login credentials for other sites

Q3 What has been the role of social and #mobile in developing #walledgardens? Have they accelerated this trend? #ogChat

Everyone agreed that social and mobile catalyzed the formation of walled garden networks. Many also gave a nod to location as a nascent driver.

  • @jaycross: Q3 Mobile adds your location to potential violations of privacy. It’s like being under surveillance. Not very far along yet. #ogChat
  • @charleneli: Q3: Mobile apps make it easier to access, reinforcing behavior. But also enables new connections a la Zynga that can escape #ogChat
  • @subreyes94: #ogChatQ3 They have accelerated the always-inside the club. The walls have risen to keep info inside not keep people out.
    • @Technodad: @subreyes94 Humans are social, want to belong to community & be in touch with others “in the group”. Will pay admission fee of info. #ogChat

Q4 Can people use the internet today without joining a walled garden network? What does this say about the current web? #ogChat

There were a lot of parallels drawn between real and virtual worlds. It was interesting to see that walled gardens provided a sense of exclusivity that human seek out by nature. It was also interesting to see a generational gap emerge as many participants cited their parents as not being a part of a walled garden network.

  • @TheTonyBradley: Q4 — You can, the question is “would you want to?” You can still shop Amazon or get directions from Mapquest. #ogchat
  • @zdFYRashid: Q4 people can use the internet without joining a walled garden, but they don’t want to play where no one is. #ogchat
  • @JohnFontana: Q4 I believe we are headed to a time when people will buy back their anonymity. That is the next social biz. #ogchat

Q5 Is there any way to reconcile the ideals of the early web with the need for companies to own information about users? #ogChat

While walled gardens have started to emerge, the consumerization of the Internet and social media has really driven user participation and empowered users to create content within these walled gardens.

  • @JohnFontana: Q5 – It is going to take identity, personal data lockers, etc. to reconcile the two. Wall-garden greed heads can’t police themselves #ogchat
  • @charleneli: Q5: Early Web optimism was less about being open more about participation. B4 you needed to know HTML. Now it’s fill in a box. #ogChat
  • @Dana_Gardner: Q5 Early web was more a one-way street, info to a user. Now it’s a mix-master of social goo. No one knows what the goo is, tho. #ogChat
  • @AlanWebber: Q5, Once there are too many walls, people will begin to look on to the next (virtual) world. Happening already #ogChat

Q6 What #Web2.0 lessons learned should be implemented into the next iteration of the web? How to fix this? #ogChat

Identity was the most common topic with the sixth and final question. Single sign-on, personal identities on mobile phones/passports and privacy seemed to be the biggest issues facing the next iteration of the web.

  • @Technodad: Q6 Common identity is a key – need portable, mutually-recognized IDs that can be used for access control of shared info. #ogChat
  • @JohnFontana: Q6 Users want to be digital. Give them ways to do that safely and privately if so desired. #ogChat
  • @TheTonyBradley: Q6 — Single ID has pros and cons. Convenient to login everywhere with FB credentials, but also a security Achilles heel. #ogchat

Thank you to all the participants who made this such a great discussion!

Patricia Donovan is Vice President, Membership & Events, at The Open Group and a member of its executive management team. In this role she is involved in determining the company’s strategic direction and policy as well as the overall management of that business area. Patricia joined The Open Group in 1988 and has played a key role in the organization’s evolution, development and growth since then. She also oversees the company’s marketing, conferences and member meetings. She is based in the U.S.

Comments Off

Filed under Tweet Jam

Social Networks – Challenging an Open Internet? Walled Gardens Tweet Jam

By Patty Donovan, The Open Group

On July 10, The Open Group will host a special tweet jam to examine “walled gardens” and the effect of social media networks on the web.

The World Wide Web was originally intended to be an open platform – from the early forums for programmers exchanging code or listservs to today’s daily photo blogs or corporate website providing product information. Information was meant to be free and available for public consumption, meaning any link on the World Wide Web could be accessed by anyone, anytime.

With the advent of Web 2.0, content no longer roams free. Increasingly, private companies and social networks, such as Facebook and Google Plus, have realized the value of controlling information and restricting the once open flow of the Internet. A link to a Facebook profile, for example, doesn’t lead to a member’s Facebook page, but instead to an invitation to join Facebook – a closed, member-only network where one must be inside the network to derive any benefit. And once one joins one of these “walled gardens,” personal content is shared in ways that are uncontrollable by the user.

As web data continues to explode and more and more information about Internet usage is gathered across sites, the pressure to “grow the gardens” with more personal data and content will continue to increase.

Please join us on July 10 at 9:00 a.m. PT/12:00 p.m. ET/5:00 p.m. BST for a tweet jam that will discuss the future of the web as it relates to information flow, identity management and privacy in the context of “walled garden” networks such as Facebook and Google. We welcome Open Group members and interested participants from all backgrounds to join the session and interact with our panel of experts, including:

To access the discussion, please follow the #ogChat hashtag next Tuesday during the allotted discussion time. Other hashtags we recommend you using include:

  • Open Group Conference, Washington, D.C.: #ogDCA
  • Facebook: #fb (Twitter account: @facebook)
  • Google: #google (Twitter account: @google)
  • Identity management: #idM
  • Mobile: #mobile
  • IT security: @ITsec
  • Semantic web: #semanticweb
  • Walled garden: #walledgarden
  • Web 2.0: #web20

Below is a list of the questions that will be addressed during the hour-long discussion:

  1. In the context of the World Wide Web, why has there been a shift from the open Internet to portals, apps and walled environments?
  2. How has this trend affected privacy and control? Do users have enough control over their IDs and content within walled garden networks?
  3. What has been the role of social and mobile in developing walled gardens? Have they accelerated this trend?
  4. Can people use the Internet today without joining a walled garden network? What does this say about the current web?
  5. Is there any way to reconcile the ideals of the early web with the need for companies to own information about users?
  6. What Web 2.0 lessons learned should be implemented into the next iteration of the web?

And for those of you who are unfamiliar with tweet jams, here is some background information:

What Is a Tweet Jam?

A tweet jam is a one hour “discussion” hosted on Twitter. The purpose of the tweet jam is to share knowledge and answer questions on a chosen topic. Each tweet jam is led by a moderator (Dana Gardner) and a dedicated group of experts to keep the discussion flowing. The public (or anyone using Twitter interested in the topic) is free (and encouraged!) to join the discussion.

Participation Guidance

Whether you’re a newbie or veteran Twitter user, here are a few tips to keep in mind:

  • Have your first #ogChat tweet be a self-introduction: name, affiliation, occupation.
  • Start all other tweets with the question number you’re responding to and the #ogChat hashtag.
    • Sample: “Q4 People can still use the Internet without joining a walled garden, but their content exposure would be extremely limited #ogChat”
  • Please refrain from product or service promotions. The goal of a tweet jam is to encourage an exchange of knowledge and stimulate discussion.
  • While this is a professional get-together, we don’t have to be stiff! Informality will not be an issue!
  • A tweet jam is akin to a public forum, panel discussion or Town Hall meeting – let’s be focused and thoughtful.

If you have any questions prior to the event, please direct them to Rod McLeod (rmcleod at bateman-group dot com). We anticipate a lively chat on July 10 and hope you will be able to join!

Patricia Donovan is Vice President, Membership & Events, at The Open Group and a member of its executive management team. In this role she is involved in determining the company’s strategic direction and policy as well as the overall management of that business area. Patricia joined The Open Group in 1988 and has played a key role in the organization’s evolution, development and growth since then. She also oversees the company’s marketing, conferences and member meetings. She is based in the US.

Comments Off

Filed under Identity Management, Tweet Jam

Cybersecurity in a boundaryless world

By David Lounsbury, The Open Group

There has been a lot of talk recently in the United States in the print, TV and government press about the “hijacking” of U.S. Internet traffic.

The problem as I understand it is that (whether by accident or intent) a Chinese core routing server advertised it had the best route for a large set of Internet routes. Moving traffic over the best route is a fundamental algorithm for Internet robustness and efficiency, so when other routers saw this apparently better route, they took it. This resulted in traffic between the U.S. and other nations’ destinations being routed through China.

This has happened before, according to a U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission entitled “Internet Routing Processes Susceptible to Manipulation.” There was also a hijacking of YouTube in February 2008, apparently by Pakistan. There have been many other examples of bad routes — some potentially riskier — getting published.

Unsurprisingly, the involvement of China concerns a lot of people in the U.S., and generates calls for investigations regarding our cybersecurity.Secure Network The problem is that our instinctive model of control over where our data is and how it flows doesn’t work in our hyperconnected world anymore.

It is important to note that this was proper technical operation, not a result of some hidden defect. So testing would not have found any problems. In fact, the tools could have given a false sense of assurance by “proving” the systems were operating correctly. Partitioning the net during a confirmed attack might also resolve the problem — but in this case that would mean no or reduced connectivity to China, which would be a commercial (and potentially a diplomatic) disaster.  Confirming what really constitutes an attack is also a problem – Hanlon’s Razor (“Never attribute to malice that which is adequately explained by stupidity”) applies to the cyber world as well. Locking down the routes or requiring manual control would work, but only at the cost of reduced efficiency and robustness of the Internet.  Best practices could help by giving you some idea of whether the networks you peer with are following best practices on routing — but it again comes down to having a framework to trust your networking partners.

This highlights what may be the core dilemma in public cybersecurity: establishing the balance of between boundaryless and economical sharing of information via the Internet (which favors open protocols and routing over the most cost-effective networks) versus security (which means not using routes you don’t control no matter what the cost). So far, economics and efficiency have won on the Internet. Managers often ask the question, “You can have cheap, quick, or good — pick two.” On the Internet, we may need to start asking the question, “You can have reliable, fast or safe — pick two.”

It isn’t an easy problem. The short-term solution probably lies in best practices for the operators, and increased vigilance and monitoring of the overall Internet routing configuration. Longer term, there may be some opportunities for improvements to the security and controls on the routing protocols, and more formal testing and evidence of conformance. However, the real long-term solution to secure exchange of information in a boundaryless world lies in not relying on the security of the pipes or the perimeter, but improving the trust and security of the data itself, so you can know it is safe from spying and tampering no matter what route if flows over. Security needs to be associated with data and people, not the connections and routers that carry it — or, as the Jericho 9th commandment puts it, “All devices must be capable of maintaining their security policy on an untrusted network.”

What do you see as the key problems and potential solutions in balancing boundarylessness and cybersecurity?

Dave LounsburyDave Lounsbury is The Open Group‘s Chief Technology Officer, previously VP of Collaboration Services.  Dave holds three U.S. patents and is based in the U.S.

Comments Off

Filed under Cybersecurity